Parenting styles literature review At present, it is well known that parents are not the only ones who contribute to the socialization process in children but they are still the main key concept in child development and socialization of children in society as the constitutes the first element of socialization for human beings (Maccoby, 1992). The relationship between parents and their children has a significant influence on the children, the parental styles are considering as effective elements that help the child to shape their view of themselves and their world (Santrock, 2005 as it cited in Sartaj and Aslam, 2010). Pinquart (2017) stated that there were two of perspectives had been adopted in parenting literature: first; a dimensional
We all experience fear, and we all want to overcome it or get rid of it. What is fear exactly? We often fear what is unknown to us or what we do not like. As humans this is natural, fear is one of the most basic human emotions. According to merriam-webster the definition of fear is “an unpleasant often strong emotion caused by anticipation or awareness of danger.” Of all our emotions fear is the darkest and most powerful.
The bonding between a mother and her child is a very important stage in the child’s life as it has an effect on the development and structure of the child’s brain (Earhart, 2015). When a child is held, cuddled or even spoken to it stimulates brain growth which promotes emotional development. Being breastfed and kept close to the mother also provides a child with a sense of security. This enables a child to be more confident, empathetic and results in a higher self-esteem (Life, 2013). All the individuals interviewed mentioned that nurturing a child is very important for emotional development.
The study indicates identity as individual sense of own self. It can be seen as the process of clarifying the role of an individual. The formation of identity would also mean showing ones unique characteristics. Identity crisis is referred to as “rediscovering of ones self or establishing ones self image” during period of adolescence. Now day’s children in the age group of 12-18 are in the stage where they are growing physically, mentally and psychologically.
Family is the first primary group that children experience, it is the place where our most important identities take shape. Assessments of these role performances based on these identities become early sources of self-esteem. All three processes of self-esteem formation are pervasive of family life. On gender we
Attachment in early life is a fundamental aspect of child development and the establishment of intimate and reciprocal relationships with caregivers. Shaffer & Kipp (2007) define attachment as ‘a close emotional relationship between two persons, characterized by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity’. Contrary to the original view of infant attachment as a ‘secondary drive’ of the dependency on caregivers for physiological needs, such as hunger; Bowlby (1969, 1973) proposed that all infants are born with an innate bias to form an attachment to a primary attachment figure to whom they can seek comfort, or a ‘secure base’ during stressful circumstances. It is proposed by Ainsworth (1967) that parental sensitivity is crucial to shaping the security and development of the initial infant-parent attachment relationship, however the phenomenon of attachment requires both infants and caregivers to contribute in the formation of the attachment bond. Ultimately, the quality of attachment in early life shapes both the social and emotional
Several factors have been laid out to probe into the matter. When it comes to identifying the causes of xenophobic outbreaks, failure to accept “otherness”, posttraumatic disorder and unemployment are the issues to be put forth. Above all, failure to accept “otherness” is one of the major contributions to the development of xenophobia. According to Morna (n.d.), the cause of xenophobia lies in the unwillingness to accept “otherness” together with the distorted ideas of oneself in which the external potential power threatens the vulnerable self. Gradually, the vulnerable self surges and empowers the powerless cruelly.
It directly affects his/her temperament. • The child’s temperament can affect how they view themselves and their ability to successfully complete tasks (Angela Oswalt, 2008). Emotional relationships with others during this stage are exhibited through the development of empathy and social competence. It is a very crucial development and it depends on the child’s relationship with his/her parents, siblings, peers, and caregivers. Social development in early childhood The term social development is inter-related with emotional development in the early childhood stage.
ABSTRACT May lives are ruined by mishandling stress thus Stress is simply a reaction to a stimulus that disturbs our physical or mental equilibrium. In other words, it's an ever-present part of life. A stressful event can trigger the “fight-or-flight” response, causing hormones such as adrenaline and cortisol to surge through the body. Stress plays a vast role in different types of people. It affects their way of living sometimes it leads to a series of serious problems such as depression, anxiety and poor anger management.