We are made to believe certain things and when someone reveals a different truth to us we are quick to get defensive and not believe the other person until an actual truth is shown. Just as Plato describes dragging the people into the sunlight from the cave. Just as the light is hard to adjust to so is the reality of the world. So many people stay in the dark and “chained to a wall” their whole lives because it’s all they know. They do not realize there are puppeteers in the background pulling the strings and even if they question they disregard their
This essay will consider Russell’s reasons for believing that there exists a mind-independent world. The philosopher offers few arguments, two of which will be outlined, namely, the argument for simplicity and the argument for instinctive beliefs. Though, the essay will argue that only Russell’s simplicity argument is effective since it stands against criticism. In fact, the critical discussion will be mainly focused on the simplicity argument because it provides more room for debate. Therefore, after an outline of both the arguments, this essay will aim to a narrow focus and explain only briefly why the argument for instinctive beliefs is unsound, while giving a deeper explanation of why the simplicity argument is valid and sound.
All sentient beings are in some way shaped by the ideas that surround them. It is impossible for any thinking creature to ignore the philosophies held by their parents, friends acquaintances, and their society. Children, for example, have their personal worldviews profoundly affected by their parents, friends, and teachers. They typically follow the ideas of their parents and integrate the prevalent ideas of their friends and teachers. There is a phrase that describes the predominant swirl of philosophies that surround a thinking being: the philosophical environment.
One major theory that can explain what they went through and why is; Von Bertalanffy’s General Systems Theory. The Systems theory suggests that all entities are systems made up of different subsystems and all belong to a super-system and all are influenced by each other. The theory can be applied to both social and biological systems and focuses on the whole rather than parts, as the theory states: “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts”. The general systems theory focuses on two types of systems; the open system and the closed system. The open system is regularly used in social situations.
As Ghoshal, 2005 says When in totalled from overall perspective, meaning in essence Social Scientists carry greater social and moral responsibility than natural or physical sciences scientists as social sciences deal predominantly with Humans and behaviours. Social Scientists and Theorists can't hide any ideology or Theory as one belong to a different school of thought, hence One can look at the below other important theoretical basis for this article. As per Parsons, Merton, Germain, Gitterman, SYSTEMS THEORY is one which includes ecological systems which How humans interact with their social setting and environment, Humans are in continual transaction with their social setting or social environment, can they shy away from the setting?, Systems are interrelated parts constituting an ordered whole system where in each subsystem impacts all other parts and the whole system. Systems can have closed or open boundaries but finally systems tend towards equilibrium thus maintaining social balance. Quoting Bowen, Satir, Minuchin, Carter and McGoldrick, Family Systems can be defined as the one which focuses on How the family system affects the individual and family functioning across the life-span of any Individual functioning shapes family functioning and family systems can create 'pathology' within the individual boundaries, roles, communication, family structure influence family functioning.
I begin my discussion by spelling out what mean by epistemology. The concept of epistemology is related to "the relationship between the knower and what can be known" (Guba and Lincoln, 1994: 108). Epistemology is defined as " [...] [T]he branch of philosophy that is concerned with the nature, origin, scope of knowledge and 'how we know what we know' " (Sumner and Tribe, 2004: 11). In respective of epistemology from my understanding and as many literatures also indicated mostly positivist researchers operate under different epistemological assumptions from constructivist researchers. For instance, positivist approach believes that knowledge is only produced through scientific approach.
What this really means is that we tend to deceive ourselves by ways of thinking called self-serving biases. Self-serving biases are thought strategies that allow people to spare themselves from the blame of anything that goes wrong so that they can continue to see themselves in a positive way. For example, one very common self-serving bias is when people do well at something, they automatically assume that they did well because of their own talents and skill and they are happy to take the credit personally. However, if they do something that does not turn out well, they automatically attribute the failure or bad result to some exterior circumstance or other reason other than themselves for why they did poorly. When this is explained so clearly is sounds kind of silly and almost childish, but I was surprised to realize how often I do this (usually without even noticing it), and how most people I know do the same thing.
Self expression is a term many people use. The meaning of it is how you show your true self around people expressing thoughts, feelings, and ideas. Many of it can be seen through art, writing, music, and dance. People show themselves with many different expressions. It can be any type of art and even writing.