In some case “human activities have been and are continuing to alter the environment on local and global scales. Many of these changes are leading to dramatic changes in the biotic structure and piece of ecological communities, either from the mislaying of species or from the introduction of exotic species. Such alterations can preferable change the ways in which ecosystems work. Altered biodiversity has led to widespread cover for a number of both market (e.g., ecotourism, “mining” for medicines) and non-market (e.g., ethical, aesthetic) explanation” (Barbier et al. 1995, Kunin and Lawton 1996, Schwartz et al.
Adjustments to the change will have to take place. For this there is a need for further research and observation of the changes. Climate change, increasing drought frequency and intensity, and high demand of water are increasing scarcity in certain countries. High agricultural consumption, increased salinity and underdeveloped conservation technologies compound the pressures on the nation’s water supply. Ultimately, climate change is likely to have a negative impact on countries and make them increasingly difficult to meet urban and agricultural water needs.
Economics system functions is to determine who among the decision maker will make effective decision for the economy. Other than that, is to coordinate the activities of individual units and help decide who among the choice- maker will actually make efficient,
Scientists have long assumed that the physical structure and condition of stream and river channels have pervasive effects on biological communities and processes (Hynes, 1970; Allan, 1995). Channel geomorphology also establishes relationship between benthic communities in different ways. Spindler, Patrice conducted a study of associations of stream channel morphology and macroinvertebrates. Significant taxa differences between tributary streams and large rivers were identified, with the greatest taxa richness occurring in tributary streams and shifts in species to more tolerant taxa in the larger rivers. The macroinvertebrate community responds to substrate parameters such as particle size and embeddedness, which directly affect benthic habitat.
Environmental stress refers to physical, chemical, and biological restraints on the productivity of species and largely on the build out of ecosystems. When the exposure to environmental stressors vary in intensity with the subjection being strong or in a way that does not set situation for high degree of survival measures, ecological responses result thereof. Stressors could possibly be natural environmental factors, or they can be an upshot of anthropogenic activity highly ubiquitous in the current scenario. Some environmental stressors exert a relatively provincial influence, while others are regional or global in their sweep and might. Stressors are summons to the very integrity and protraction of ecosystems
but unfortunately human activities cause of global warming, catastrophe, soil degradation, and habitat loss which is an alarming threat to species and ecosystem diversity (Rawat & Agarwal, 2015). Conservation of biodiversity plays important role in the functioning and delivering ecosystem services. Agroecosystems make agricultural crop production more sustainable and economically viable by maintaining high biodiversity. Agricultural biodiversity protects to pollination of crops, biological crops, maintenance of proper structure and soil fertility against nutrient cycling, soil erosion, and control of water flow and distribution (Feledyn-Szewczyk et al., 2016). Biodiversity in agricultural sector can be recognised on two levels: first level is related to species and cultivars diversity,
An SDI integrates the economic, social and environmental indicators. One of the important requirements for an SDI is a balanced integration of the social, economic and environmental indicators. An appropriate set of indicators is based on some criteria, such as coverage, relevance, reliability and
Due to the hydrological cycle, water is constantly in contact with the environment, which leaves it subject to pollution, as well as, filtration. However, the environment must be aided in managing the earth’s water supply. Therefore, it is important to facilitate proper land use and
Rivers are deeply embedded into the economic, social, political as well as cultural fabric of India. In many circumstances rivers have served as a means of linkage. However, there are instances when rivers were regarded as the source of disputes and contingencies. The origin of major rivers in India can be traced to the following there major watersheds: • The Himalaya and the Karakoram ranges • Vindhya and Satpura ranges and the Chota Nagpur Plateau in Central India • Sahyadri or Western Ghats in western India There are various factors that need to be taken into account while studying about rivers. Their vastness, number and distribution of tributaries, richness in terms of natural recourses and life forms as well as their geographical manoeuvring is intriguing and is a subject of various researches and studies.