It will contribute to result in much more drought and flooding in low-lying areas with decline in food production, an increase in disease, and the extinction of plants, animals, and entire ecosystems (IPCC, 2007). Climate change and variability affects agriculture in several ways, one of which is its direct impact on crop productivity (Ziervogel et al. 2006). Global food security, which is threatened by climate change and variability, is one of the most important challenges in the 21st century to supply sufficient food for the increasing population while sustaining the already stressed environment (Lal R, et al, 2005). Climate change has already caused significant impacts especially on water resources, food security, hydropower, human health (Magadza, 2000).
Although some skeptics around the world believe that climate change is a hoax and unscientific, many respected scientists have concluded that environmental changes brought around by humans have altered the patterns of rainfall around the world, resulting in serious consequences. Narration Climate change itself is a manmade alteration to the earth’s natural homeostasis. By instigating climate change, humans have made it so a wide variety of problems have become apparent. One of many complications is the change in precipitation patterns, which can lead to flooding via extreme storms and can even cause extreme droughts. This problem is a serious one as every year, billions of
Land use and land cover change have become a central and important component in current strategies in managing natural resources and monitoring environmental changes, as a complex process which is caused by the mutual interactions between environmental and social factors at different spatial and temporal scales, and also plays a fundamental role in various environmental and socioeconomic applications from local, regional, to global scales (Ram and Kolarkar 1993), which they are a dynamic process taking placing on the bio-physical surfaces that have taken place over a period and space is of enormous significance in natural resource studies. Land use and land cover dynamics are essential elements for monitoring, protecting, evaluating, and planning
However, when traced, its causes are heavily influenced by man. In terms of the photosynthesis process of plants, climate change has numerous negative effects. It impedes the photosynthesis process in situations where an increase of temperature occurs. This leads to the production of less oxygen and food (glucose) which directly affects the food availability of humans. The decrease in the yield of crops has a huge and significant impact on countries, especially poorer nations.
There are three impacts in the Climate change which are the following below: 1. Coastal areas ground loss (67%) 2. Water resources concentration of rainfall in winter water quality degradation Increased need for irrigation 3. Agriculture Increased need for water increased weeds, pests and diseases shift of farmland to North The Impacts of Climate Change: • Forests and biodiversity • Decreased productivity • Increased risk of fire • Migration and extinction of forest key species • Increase of diseases • Extinction of plant and animal species • Increased risk of exotic species
for soil moisture, rooting depth etc. Each type of land qualities such as moisture availability or drainage condition are compared with each kind of land use requirements. Therefore, the land itself and the land use are similarly important to the evaluation of land suitability. ii. Evaluation requires a comparison of the benefits obtained and the inputs needed on different types of land: Land in itself, without input, rarely if ever possesses productive potential; even the collection of wild fruits requires labour, whilst the use of natural wilderness for nature conservation requires measures for its protection.
Land use/cover change has become a central and important component in managing natural resources and monitoring environmental changes in current strategies, as a complex process which is caused by the reciprocal interactions between environmental and social factors at different spatial and temporal scales, and also plays a fundamental role in various environmental and socioeconomic applications from local, regional, to global scales (Balak and Kolarkar, 1993; Vitousek, 1994; Atkinson and Foody, 2002; Rindfuss et al., 2004; Valbuena et al., 2008; Rimal, 2011). The major land use change has strongly impacted to water resources including desertification, deforestation, and urbanization that deforestation outcomes normally turn to either agricultural or urban land uses. Although, the land transformation of forests to agriculture impacts to water quality in various levels depends heavily on farming practices, and erosion such as tillage technique, chemical use versus organic practices, or size and type of conservation easements (United Nations, 2005; Younos and Parece, 2012). Land use and land cover are terms frequently used interchangeably because of significantly different meanings and applications, namely land cover refers to physical features or biophysical attributes on the surface of the Earth-vegetation, water, the built-up land. Whereas, land use is specifically links to the human (economic) utility or purpose for which the land is used.
Sedimentation and pollution in the streams or rivers causes effecting the life duration and quality of fish and other species. Land degradation are also reducing the water holding capacity of soil on the contrary, increased by flooding and leaching of water and nutrient losses mainly as nitrate form. The other substantial change in land usage is the maintaining of sustainability. According to FAO statistics, 28% of the total earth surface have any limits on its use for agriculture while 28% is too dry, 23% has chemical imbalances, 10% is too wet, 6% is permanently frozen, and remaining 22% the soil is to shallow for use as arable land. Altgouhg there are some discussions about the renewable subject of soil today, generally if the soil formation rate exceed the degredation rate, soil is accepted as renewable, on the contrary the degredation surpasses the formation, soil is accepted as
The global climate change and its consequences are leaving a bad impact on the countries to face poverty and hotter temperatures. Climate change impacts include temperature rise, greenhouse and carbon dioxide gas emissions, erratic rainfall, salinity intrusion, the rise of floods, cyclones, storm surges and draught, ice sheets melting which will seriously affect the agriculture, and the world. Researchers agree that climate change is a fact.Temperatures have been increasing
Historical study of forest fire is significant for ecological and forest management applications(Iniguez et al. 2008). In terrestrial ecosystems, Landuse change and fires are considered as the drivers of global change(Rudel et al. 2005;Fraterrigo et al.