To begin, in this essay we are going to explain the function of phraseology and its importance to EFLs, abbreviation of speakers who learn English as a Second Language. Above all, we will also mention the difficulties the educational system faces when it comes to teach phraseology to future English learners. Phraseology is the study of the origins and use of formulaic language. These are combined sets of words that are composed of two or more words and have a fixed meaning that might not be transparent or compositional – that is, its internal elements do not contribute to the meaning of the entire phrase. These combinations are often fixed, but there are some types that are flexible.
Drawbacks: • For those who learn to speak by learning the whole sound of a word , phonics I not an ideal form of reading instruction, because these learners do not naturally break words into separate sounds. • Some phonics programs use low- interest reading material and too many boring worksheets . Those " drawbacks ", of course , are not unique to a phonics program . Whole language: Whole language is a currently controversial approach to teaching reading that is based on constructivist learning theory and ethnographic studies of students in classrooms. With whole language ,teachers are expected to provide a literacy rich environment for their students and to combine speaking , listening, reading, and writing.
Moreover, in order to improve English skills and to get the information, students need to comprehend reading texts well. The reading comprehension is one of reading goal. Linse (2005) points out that comprehension is the main purpose of reading. To comprehend a reading text is also one of reading basic competence that should be acquired by the students. The process of reading comprehension is not easy.
This is a challenge for the students enrolled in English programs. Osada (2004) reported that listening as a complex mental process, involves perception, attention, cognition, and memory. Comprehending speech in a foreign language is a very difficult activity for language learners. While listening to a foreign language, most of the language learners face difficulties. In order to help students improve their listening ability and solve their listening difficulties, language teachers need to understand students’ listening difficulties in comprehending spoken texts, and teach effective listening
This strategy including repetition, summarising meaning, organizing new language, guessing meaning from context, and using imagery for memorizing. The term of “cognitive” simply means the use of mind (cognition) to learn. In learning English, field which mostly used cognitive strategy is reading comprehension. Rosenshine (1997), states that the act of creating question for students to answer does not lead to comprehension. Otherwise, the studentd will do self-questioning that will help them to understand what they read.
This terms authentic assessment and performance assessment are often used interchangeably, but the two do not mean exactly the same thing (Kenneth D.Moore, 2007). Performance assessment is more to test students to perform a task rather than select the correct answer. Performance assessment is to measure students’ skills based on what they understand from lesson. The measurement must be based on authentic tasks such as activities, exercises or problem solving to show what they can do. Richard J Stiggins (1987) stated that “Performance assessments are valuable tools for measuring communication skills such as reading, writing, speaking and listening” (p.34).
The four skills in English; listening, speaking, reading and writing, are all important parts and what we need, to understand the English language and being able to communicate in it. But how could you work with these skills in the classroom to make the best out of them? What could be important to think about? The four skills do not necessarily have to be worked with each at separate times, you could combine them and do different projects which involve more than one. The schools today often work after a communicative approach which says that all the four skills should be integrated in each other and worked with together (Celce-Murcia, 2001, p.8).
With the advent of the more communicative approaches to language teaching, more attention has been given to communicative strategies to teach writing skill. Instead of focusing on the final product by writing teachers, various techniques can be employed to help language learners develop effective writing strategies in a continuous process and specially during pre-writing stage (Hayes and Flower). The present study investigated the effects on EFL learners’ writing ability of some visual aids and outlining during the pre-writing stage. To do so, 40 Iranian EFL learners completed four essay writing tasks i.e., writing without any pre-writing hint, writing using some picture cues, writing with teacher-made outline and writing with their own outlines.
ROLE OF L1 IN TEACHING METHODOLOGY EFL teachers manage the process of language instruction in their classrooms by exploring the students ' L1. Here, the aim is to first categorize different language teaching methods and then discuss the role and the use of L1 in each of them briefly. A common classification of methods is traditional, alternative, and current communicative methods. In the field of English language teaching the traditional methods of teaching a language are Grammar Translation Method, Direct Method, and Audio-lingual method. A haphazard or careless use of the mother tongue may be an unwanted side-effect of monolingualism, often employed today by disaffected or teachers.
Vocabulary has been considered as fundamental in language teaching and learning by many researchers. Vocabulary is an integral part of the language learning process. Little knowledge of vocabulary has an effect on fluency of language learning. As previous experiences indicated vocabulary learning is a major factor in learning a language, mother tongue or second/foreign language. Learning vocabulary in the earlier stages is more essential than grammar.