Last but not least, L2 learners do not learn language at the same rate, the matter of culture, social class, attitude, personality, can all become factors that influence the learning rate of a child. Each busting of a myth implies that educators should not have unrealistic expectations of children learning an L2 regarding their
Current researches show that except for pronunciation, adolescents and adult actually perform better than children in learning a second language. To break another saying: children learn languages faster than adults, the author argues that children can learn faster because children do not need to achieve the complicated communicative competences as adults do. Children can learn faster simply because the constructions they learn are shorter and easier. Consequently, teachers should not assume that children are able to learn second language quickly and easily and hence teach them
He states that six or more years of instruction in English does not guarantee normal language communication. He suggests that communicative abilities have to be developed at the same time as the linguistic skills; otherwise the mere acquisition of the linguistic skills may inhibit the development of communicative abilities. Widdowson’s idea seems to be influenced by Hymes’ thought that children acquire not only the knowledge of grammar, but also the knowledge of appropriateness. Hymes points out that children acquire knowledge of sociocultural rules such as when to speak, when not to speak, what to talk about with whom and in what manner, at the same time as they acquire knowledge of grammatical rules. With this, Widdowson (1983) strongly suggests that communicative competence be taught alongside with grammatical competence.
Syntax is the study of sentence structure and the grammatical arrangement of words. In all languages, sentences are structured in certain specific ways. So when we say that sentences have structure, it is implying that they are not just strings of word but have an internal structure. Speakers are capable of producing and understanding an infinite number of phrases and sentences of that language even if we have never heard or produced before (Akmajian, et al., 2010). This essay will discuss evidences in favour of the hypothesis that sentences have structure.
Children learn to speak popular view, by copying the utterances heard around them, and by having their responses strengthened by the repetitions, corrections, and other reactions that adults provide. In recent years, it has become clear that this principle will not explain all the facts of language development. Children do imitate a great deal, especially in learning sounds and vocabulary; but little of their grammatical ability can be explained in this way. Two kinds of evidence are commonly used in support of this criticism one based on the kind of language children produce, the other on what they do not produce. The first piece of evidence derives from the way children handle irregular grammatical patterns.
A preverbal message coming from the conceptualiser and entering the formulator is first grammatically encoded and then converted into a speech plan (phonetic plan). This happens by matching the meaning part of a lemma from the lexicon with the semantic information in the preverbal message and then applying the right form, meaning grammatical and phonological rules. In short information from the lexicon is made available in two phases: first through semantic activation and then through form activation. Lemma information of a lexical item includes the conceptual specifications of the item, such as its pragmatic and stylistic conditions, its (morpho-)syntactic information, its syntactic category and grammatical functions, as well as information that is needed for syntactical encoding, such as number, tense, aspect, mood, case and pitch accent. The activation of the lemmas and the relevant syntactic information leads to the formation of the surface structure in form of phonological encoding.
In L1 acquisition individuals do not have a choice but learn the language of their surrounding environment, however when it comes to Second Language Acquisition (SLA), it is better for people to commence the process at a younger age, as it would be easier for them to absorb and store information and grammatical rules. It has been proven that the period of puberty, around 12 or 13 years of age, is vital for the acquisition of language. After their teenage years it is difficult even infeasible for people to attain a second language with the same degree of competence as the one in the first language acquired, which has an impact on the proficiency levels of an individual (Raymond Hickey, English Linguist. Campus
Parse: Parsing the set of words Parsing is a process which is used to understand the syntax and semantics of the source language. Parsing is done by using Stanford parser. The tagged input sentences is passed through Stanford parser. And obtain the grammatical rule of each sentences. C.POS taggers Parts of speech tagging for the parsed input source sentence is done using Stanford Pos tagger.
Basically main component of the oral language development is acquisition of the rules that govern the structure of language, like phonology, syntax and semantics and the practical application of these rules. Phonology deals with systematic organization of sounds of a certain language. It also includes articulation, pronunciation, and intonation, which involves pitch, stress, and juncture (Morrow, 2012). Syntax is responsible for the structure of the phrases, clauses and sentences in a certain language. Syntactic rules govern the formation, and transformation of sentence patterns, defining the principles of word order.
(Chomsky, Noam, 1965). The linguistic competence means what kids hold in their memories and store in their minds unconsciously, what forms a programming system working automatically, while linguistic performance means their actual practice of these words or their real use of the language. (Cook, G., 2000). He assumes that all the languages have some sorts of blocks and lumps, and all kids instinctively are aware of that problem, however they cannot form sentences by themselves, they need to receive such ability from others, otherwise they would not be able to produce or practice language because their lack of patterns which must be learnt from the