but there is no free will (determinism) in psychodynamic approach (Jarvis, 2000, p. 60). Humanistic approach is developed because of the limitations of behavioral and psychodynamic approaches (Jarvis, 2000, p. 61). Moreover, humanistic approach is taken a positive perspective unlike the psychodynamic perspective. Lastly, humanistic perspective’s theories are more subjective and hard to be tested compared to the psychodynamic approach (Jarvis, 2000, p. 74).
Nosek stated that the IAT “displayed satisfactory internal consistency” because of its ability to get the same result repeatedly which directed to Nosek and Hanse to get “reliably”, (Rezaei, 2011) outcome. The consistency is portrayed within the prediction of social behaviours. Its stated that the “implicit measures of attitudes are especially predictive”, (Dovidio, 1997) revealing the idea of the IAT having a good re-test reliability as each result is consistent. Steffens and Buchner also state the consistency is “very high” which further supports the IAT’s reliability. Overall, IAT’s reliability has made the test become a “widely used instrument” (McConnell and Leibold, 2001) to measure implicit bias which makes the test a finer of measuring bias.
Communication According to Bryan (2009) the term communication is when two or more people exchange information verbally and non-verbally in which common set of signs and rules have been used. However, verbal exchange is for example, through writing, reading, speaking and listening while non-verbal is for example, gestures, facial expression, touch etc. Humanistic Theory
Mayer and Salovey (1997) revised this definition to include: • the ability to perceive accurately, appraise, and express emotion. • the ability to access and/ or generate feelings when they facilitate thought. • the ability to understand emotion and emotional
In a dynamic work context, where ongoing learning and performance improvement is needed, high self-efficacy helps librarians to react less defensively when they receive negative feedback. In areas where their self-efficacy is low, people often see a negative outcome as confirming the incompetence they perceive in themselves. This can set up a vicious cycle, whereby ambiguous results are considered as evidence of perceived inability, further lowering librarian’s self-efficacy, effort, and subsequent performance. When people have low self-efficacy, they also tend to blame either the situation or another person when things go wrong. Denial of any responsibility for poor performance inhibits the chance that an individual will learn how to perform
He gives another argument that each and every person uses the word “suck”, which is a broad claim. However, in his following paragraph, he does not reason why all people use “suckiness”, but rather gives two examples of political leaders who do use it. This is a weak inductive argument, as he assumes that if the famous political leaders use this word, then so does the average person. Here the author should have probably listed a psychological reason that explains why humans react either positively or negatively. This might have increased the strength and acceptability of his argument.
Middle-childhood and adolescence are very important stages of development in terms of cognitive, social, and emotional developments. Jean Piaget’s stages of concrete operations and formal operations coincide with these two stages, respectively. In this essay, I will make use of evidence from various sources to illustrate that Piaget’s theory about these stages has had a significant impact and influence on various aspects of education, and how his contributions to the understanding of cognition is invaluable. The concrete-operations stage of development is when thinking shifts from being egocentric to being more logical.
Eccles and Wigfield (2002) strongly supported Bandura’s assumption (1994;1999; 2001) in that outcomes expectations as well as efficacy expectations are the precedence of people’ s expectancy beliefs for success. They presume that expectancy beliefs contribute highly in task persistence, setting goals, and investing greater effort. The reciprocal connection between self-efficacy and motivation (Bandura, 1994) are apparently determined by goal attainments, investments of effort, task-persistence, and resilience to failures. From what has been discussed so far in the preceding section, the vast literature of the appraisal of self-efficacy beliefs is grounded correspondingly in attribution theory, goal theory, and expectancy-value theory (cf.
However, though visualize differently, reliability and validity are quite important in qualitative research. They helped the readers to understand how much confidence can be placed in the result. Lindlof (2002) says” Basically, we want to inspire confidence in readers (and ourselves) that we have achieved right interpretations.” So now, the question to be answer is “How to ensure the reliability and validity of qualitative method?” Patton (2001) advocates the use of triangulation by stating “triangulation strengthens a study by combining methods.
(Chen & Tjosvold, 2007; Tjosvold, 1998). Agreeableness also positively predicts transformational leadership skills. Leaders with high levels of agreeableness were more likely to be considered transformational rather than transactional. However, the same study showed no predictive power of leadership effectiveness as evaluated by the leader's direct supervisor. Therefore, with further research organizations may be able to determine an individual's potential for performance based on their personality