In general Paige’s theory stresses conscious mental processes. Cognitive processes are influenced by biological maturation .Four stages of cognitive development in children. Assimilation and accommodation underlie how children understand the world, adapt to it, and organize their experiences. Wadsworth (2004) suggests that when Piaget talked about the development of a person 's mental processes, he was referring to increases in the number and complexity of the schemata that a person had learned. Piaget emphasized the importance of schemas in cognitive development, and described how they were developed or acquired.
Introduction Development of children has been one of the hotly-debated topics among scholars. Piaget’s stages of cognitive development provided insights for mental development of children. Piaget proposed that children need to go through different developmental stages within a specific age range so as to acquire different cognitive skills. One concept Piaget emphasized was conservation. Piaget suggested that after seven, children will be able to understand that physical properties of an object remain unchanged even the appearance of the object changes as children’s physical and mental operation are reversible (Piaget, 1965).
The Theory of Mind, or ToM, places a significant role is the special ways in which children develop throughout life. According to Baris Korkmaz, the theory of mind is cognitive capabilities that allow us to be conscious of abstract ideas such as desires, beliefs, plans, hopes, information, and intentions of others that may be different from our own. The theory of mind consists of functions such as memory, face-recognition, empathy, imitation, language, and other important functions. Many neurological disorders can impair the theory of mind in young, developing children. Disorders that can damage the theory of mind are ADHD, or attention deficit hyper-activity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and schizophrenia (Korkmaz, 2011).
Piaget 's theory of cognitive development is a broad theory about the nature and development of human intelligence. Although it is commonly known as a developmental stage theory, it also engages with the nature of knowledge itself and how individuals get to acquire, construct, and use the knowledge obtained. Piaget state that cognitive development is an advancing reorganization of mental processes as a result of biological maturation and experiences experienced in the individual environment. Children build an perception of the world around them, then experience differences between what they have known and what they find out in their surroundings. Apart from that Piaget argues that the concept that cognitive development is at the center of human organism and language is dependent on cognitive development.
Equilibration Equilibration is a mechanism that Piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to the next (John W, 2011). Equilibration is a balance between assimilation and accommodation while disequilibrium is a situation where the imbalance between assimilation and accommodation, equilibration can make someone brings together the experience beyond the inner structure. Another notable constructivist is Vygotsky. Vygotsky's work is based on two main ideas. First, intellectual development can be understood only when viewed from a historical and cultural context of the child's experience.
This essay will be discussing two different theories of learning; Behaviorism and Constructivism. Watson and Skinner, two major theorists of the behaviorist theory tried to prove that human behavior could be controlled and foreseen. Both Skinner and Watson investigated how learning could be affected by a change in ones environment. However, the constructivist theory viewed learning as an exploration of meaning. Piaget and Vygotsky, two of the major advocates for Constructvist theory, both explored factors that could help figure out how children understand learning at different stages in their lives.
The Nature- Nurture Debate The Nature-Nurture debate is the thought provoking dispute which explains the development of a child in relation to the biological factors: genetic inheritance (Nature), and the acquirement of knowledge in life, which means that the child learns through watching the behavior of other humans. The nature and nurture side both propose great ideas for explaining development in each of the domains. The cognitive development which is “how the mind processes, stores and retrieves information” (Mhic Mhathúna & Taylor, 2012S p.17), motor-physical development which is how a child develops physically with fine/ gross motor skills and socio-emotional development which is “the child’s experience, expression and management of
The EYFS believes that if a child has developed the three main aspects, the rest will develop alongside these. Personal factors that can affect a child’s learning and development include their role models, the encouragement they are given, their resources and expectations. These are all based around their environment and their relationships with primary carers. External factors that can affect a child’s learning and development include the monitoring of their development, their opportunities, the resources and services they have access to, the influence of others, their consistency in education and ill health. Atypical development can impact a child’s communication development, physical development and their communication development.
Child development or normal development is usually defined as a normal progress by which children’s behaviours and skills change over time (Smith, 2012). Child development generally involves motor skills, physical appearance, cognitive behaviour, social and emotional behaviour, communication and language skill, and the ability to help themselves and adapt. Child development can be described in different ways such as the rate of development which differs from child to child, development should take place over a long period of time and should follow some sort of order. As children grow, various physical and developmental milestones will be reached. Atypical development can be said to be uncommon and not normal.
There are two theories about the learning ability of adolescent which is proposed by Howard Gardner and Robert Sternberg. According to Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, there are different pathways of learning which is depending to one’s ability, strength and the way they developed it. Under such circumstances, Gardner suggests that adults should focus on developed the strength and ability of adolescent rather than emphasis on shortages of ability (Campbell & Gentry, 2002). Multiples intelligences should engaged with each other in order to achieve successful learning. Sternberg’s theory of intelligences emphasize that the development of analytical, creative and practical ability is important in order to be successfully intelligence (Sternberg, 1997).