Chapter 5 discuses developmental psychology, behavioral psychology, and cognitive psychology. Developmental psychology allows us to understand how difficult learning is. The biggest factor of developmental psychology is how mature the cognitive skills of the child are. The process of the child’s cognitive skills take time and if the child isn’t allowed to time properly mature cognitively, the child could be faced with cognitive issues. Every child learns differently and at different rates.
Rate of development means the speed at which they develop. Development can refer to physical development, cognitive development. it is important that we understand the difference between the two is that while typical children follow the same pattern of development, they may reach the milestones at different ages depending on the child and a range of personal and external factors that may affect them. Developments tend to be divided into different areas but it is important to remember that all areas of development are connected with each other. Sometimes a child development may appear to be significantly different from their peers.
This last stage is called the formal operational stage, and encompasses a large timeline. During this period, a child develop an ability to form abstract symbols, into concepts and systems. Their thoughts begin to become systematic, and they start to formulate hypothesis about the world around them. A child begins to consider the possibilities of an action, and ponder abstract relationships, which will develop into
He described four stages, Sensorimotor Stage, Pre-operational Stage, Concrete Operational Stage and Formal Operational Stage, beginning in infancy and ending in adulthood. According to Piaget, we use the cognitive abilities we have at each stage to construct meaning drawn from our own environment (Ornstein and Scarpaci, 2012). He believed that there are two ways to approach constructivist theory: the developmental and the environment. The developmental theory of cognition describes the structures of knowledge as pre-logical, concrete and abstract operations (Ornstein and Scarpaci, 2012). According to Piaget, children learn concepts through different stages of cognitive development, this occurs before learning occurs and concepts are internalised (Ornstein and Scarpaci, 2012).
Critical Relational Frames All relational frames are important for children to develop language acquisition as well as for them to understand their environment, but others are a little more important because they deal with the child’s ability to gain his/her own perspective of life as well as self-awareness as a result authors Novak and Pelaez state, “The three frames that have been identified as the most important in this regard are the frames of “I and you”, “here and there” and “now and then” (Novak & Pelaez, 2004, p. 309). These frames are different and are developed from caregivers that offer children extensive examples in the form of language; for example the caregiver would say “what are you looking at “while focusing their gaze on
Piaget is describe as the changes in logical thinking of children. Piaget is the theory of how children interact with our environment. Also to see what new information and knowledge a child has experience. Piaget is to interact with our social and physical environment. Piaget is more dealing with nature and capabilities.
The questionable and ambiguous nature surrounding the notion that children play an active role in acquiring language has been debated by many theorists of different perspectives. These three perspectives include the learning view, the nativist view and the interactionist view. In this essay I will discuss each perspective with reference to psychological theories and research that relates to each view. The learning perspective of language acquisition suggests that children acquire language through imitation and reinforcement (Skinner, 1957). The ideology behind this view claims that children develop language by repeating utterances that have been praised by their parent, therefore gaining a larger vocabulary and understanding of phrases over
This assignment includes; Strengths, examples and weaknesses of the following psychological research; Bandura et al, Skinner & Loftus and Palmer.In order discuss and come to a conclusion as to why ecological validity is important in psychological research. It is important to note that; Ecological validity is the degree to which behaviours reflect the behaviours of everyday life. In Chapter 3 Bandura et al demonstrated whether children were witnesses to an aggressive display of play. The strengths were that many variables were controlled: such as;“the gender of the model, the time the children observed the model and the behaviour of the model.”(Oates 2012 P.118) This suggests that the model had an effect on the child’s actions because all variables other than the independent variable are controlled.Due to variables being controlled this study is reliable,as this allows for the study to be replicated. However, there are also limitations,Bandura et al’s study involved a child with an adult model, which is very limited in a social situation and there is no interaction between the child and the model at any point other than when aggression is being displayed;Bandura used a laboratory setting which was set up as a play room.
Each theorist discussed about how infants are able to develop some control over their environment, language and problem solving. Piaget has stages of development whereas Vygotsky does not, however they both discussed how infants develop a sense of control in their environment. Piaget’s discussed this in the first stage of development, the sensorimotor intelligence stage where infants will develop “increasingly complex motor and sensory schemes in which allow them to organize and exercise some control over their environment” (Newman and Newman, 2015 p.35). Vygotsky discussed an infant’s development to control a part of their environment through learning to gesture at objects and internalizing these gestures when their goal is met (Newman & Newman, 2015). Both theorists discussed the importance of language development and importantly egocentric speech.
The notion of the nature nurture debate is an ongoing argument that deliberates the views of development and their influences. This debate questions whether genetics or the environment surrounding a child has greater influence on development. It is necessary to highlight a variety of current and popular opinions in regard to the debate to determine differences in perception and research and the greater influence in development. This essay will discuss the concept of nature and nurture, then the perceptions linked to both notions and finally highlight the differences between popular arguments and research to come to a conclusion on whether nature or nurture has a greater influence. The reasoning for individual's unique characteristics is derived