The construct “Attitudes toward the learning situation” includes attitudes toward any aspect of the situation in which the language is learned. According to Gardner, these attitudes could be directed toward the teacher, the course in general, one‘s classmates, the course material, extra-curricular activities associated with the course, among others. He further elucidates that these three factors can form the learner‘s attitude toward the learning situation depending on whether students’ experiences with these factors have been positive or negative. Gardner (2010) emphasizes, “It is these differences in attitudes toward the learning situation that are the focus of the model” (p. 89). In the AMTB, there is a subscale where the learners can evaluate their language teacher and their course, identified as TEACHER and CLASS.
Willingness to communicate which is new to individual differences research in SLA is connected with motivation. It is originally investigated in L1 Communication research, willingness to communicate pertains to the predisposition towards talkativeness that learners produce in the classroom and also potentially outside the classroom. As such it is the behavioral intent that can cause actual communicative behavior (MacIntyre, Clement, Dornei, & Noels, 1998). According to MacIntyre, Burns, and Jessome (2011), willingness to communicate approaches multiple dimensions for learner’s experiences. In the L2 classroom, not only task type and topic but also classroom interactional patterns, and interlocutors may affect learners’ willingness to communicate may be affected by (Cao, 2011).
USE QUESTIONING AND FEEDBACK TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE ASSESSMENT PROCESS UNIT 2, 6.4 LITERATURE REVIEW Harlen explains that there are two main reasons for assessing students: to help their learning and to report on what they have learned. He argues that researchers typically discuss these reasons as different purposes for assessment and “mistakenly as different kinds of assessments that are somehow opposed to one another” (Harlen, 2007b). How can they achieve the aim? When learners know and understand these principles, the quality of learning will improve. Sharing this information with my learners will promote ownership of the learning aims and a sense of shared responsibility between me the teacher and learner to achieve those aims.
The end goal of this investigation is that the second language learning motivation is presented as a particular sort of learning motivation which is showed in foreign language learning in a school setting. This motivation, utilizing distinctive types of motivational parts (e.g., concerns, self-idea, objectives and so forth. ), reinforces the foreign language learning process with the goal that it enacts and supports it and guides it to the finish of the learning tasks. Jurisevic M. & Pizorn K. (2013) stated that Motivational stimulations which a learner follows throughout the learning process from his learning condition and which might be showed in various mental and didactical structures will affect the orientation of the second language learning motivation including motivational objectives a learner will shape in time. Regularly, looking for into discoveries imply to two motivational directions – internal and
Actually, Inductive approach was often correlated with Direct Method and Natural Approach in English teaching, therefore, the rules of the language were supposedly acquired out of the experience of the understanding and repeating examples which had been systematically graded for difficulty and put into a clear context” (Thornburry, 2002, p.50). With this approach, the learners were not taught grammatical or other types of rules directly but they were left to discover or induce rules from meaningful contexts provided by the teacher and their experience of using the language ( Richard& Platt,1997). The inductive approach related to subconscious learning processes similar to the concept of language acquisition. Learners learnt the language in the same way as children acquired their first or second
Learners need to understand the reasons or areas where they can use knowledge and then only they can get themselves involved in thinking. Therefore, according to Maslow [Ref. 3], motivation not only helps but is considered critically essential in learning. So, as a teacher, I need to conduct my classroom training in a way that motivates my learners as each of their needs are
One assumes that students will be different after a unit of work has been taught. The question arises as to the degree of difference. Hence, measurement assessment, and evaluation are important to determine the degree of difference. Within this context, classroom instruction enables students to achieve intended learning outcomes. In so doing, the teacher becomes a predictor.
2. 1 The Overview of Motivation in English learning Motivation is defined differently according to different perspectives. Jafari (2013) states that motivation, according to behaviorist, is an anticipation of reward to acquire positive reinforcement that in this view people’s acts are at the mercy of external forces, while according to constructivists it is different due to situation. In language learning, it is an attempt that learners make for learning a second or foreign language that is because of their needs or desire to learn it (Ellis, 1994).There have been studies focusing on the effects of motivation in learning and theories on the definition of motivation and motivation types have been developed (Öztürk, 2012) but Alderman (2004) delineates that motivation in
While it is a bit of an exaggeration, students clearly feel that classroom-based speaking practice does not prepare them for the real world. Is why I choose to do small but very concrete steps on how to express a simple idea like What are the priorities on your life?, giving the example with my ideas on the board as the same time it was expressed, the students seemed to get the activity instruction clearly so they proceeded to wrote and then speak with a partner about they priorities they wrote down before. Research by Peter Skehan5 on Task-based Learning shows that giving student’s preparation time significantly increases the range of language used in the performance of the task, whereas the accuracy of the language is not as influenced. If this is so, then it seems sensible to give students preparation time when encouraging them to use new language.
Many researchers have noticed the importance of the affective factors including anxiety, motivation confidence and so on in classroom (Scovel,1978, Horwitz, 1986, Macintyre and Gardner, 1991). The relation between affect and learning has been proved by second language learning theory that the positive affective factors will accelerate the learning process and improve the effect of learning, while the negative affective factors such as anxiety will impede student’s learning and decrease learning efficiency (Scovel, 1978). Listening may easily cause student’s anxiety. The speed of the saying they hear cannot be controlled and students cannot pause to think what they have heard and interpreted the sounds into meaning. On contrast, students can control the reading