He states that, by the creation of a cartel, the capitalist states can use their combined financial capital to exploit the peripheral states together for the mutual benefits of the imperial states. His idea would eliminate the dangers of wars between the capitalist states and remove negative influences of imperialist designs. ( The Great Soviet Encyclopedia 1979, 2010) Rosa Luxemburg’s theory of imperialism: Rosa Luxemburg does not comment on the idea of imperialism. However, she has theorized the reasons for why capital states indulge in imperialism. Rosa believed that imperialism was based on capital accumulation.
The US wanted “peace without victory”, France wanted to cripple Germany and gain security from the treaty and Britain wanted middle ground of wat the US and Germany wanted (Treaty of Versailles: How America, France & Britain Benefited.). Consequently the treaty was written for the benefit of each
Liberal theories of political economy emerged in 18th and 19th century Britain in wake of the industrial revolution. Political economists such as Adam Smith and David Ricardo preached the virtues of government non-interference in the economy and free trade (O’Brien & Williams, 2016). This emergence was to challenge the dominance of economic nationalism in the sphere of government. In revolting against economic nationalism policies otherwise known as mercantilism, Adam Smith who is generally regarded as the founder of modern economics viewed the management and interference of government in the economy as a threat and argued that; “The Statesman, who should attempt to direct private people in what manner they ought to employ their capitals,
The United States arose out of the Cold War as the only remaining hegemon, making America the principal actor in a unipolar global order. Though the U.S. has endured as the dominant economic and military power in the world, Huntington instead chose to focus his exposition on the salience of multiculturalism to a valuation of global power. In a free market society, technological modernization has had a prolific effect on multiculturalism (via economic and social convergence criteria). The European peace project has led to the creation of a multicultural confederation which actively disseminates Western politics, social norms and liberal economic values to establish itself as a global power. Europe has institutionalized multiculturalism both
Now it is important to realize that being an open economy allowed Germany to integrate economically with other European countries, erasing all traces of extreme nationalism that could still exist. This idea was also defended by Konrad Adenauer who wrote that the process of European integration would also be a regeneration process that would leave aside nationalist ideas. He believed that integration was ‘The End of Nationalism’ and that was the exact title we gave to one of his publications . Besides, the foundation of the European Union, more than a method to prevent upcoming wars, represented a crucial step against the nationalism and discrimination on promoting freedom of people and equal rights to everyone, independently of sex and race. These ideals have been protected by EU legislation through measures that combat all kinds of racism and xenophobia.
In Domestic Politics and War, Jack Levy explains diversionary war by writing: “Political elites can use a foreign war to divert popular attention from internal, social, and political problems” (Levy 94). A somewhat cynical view, this theory believes war is primarily instigated to distract civilians from domestic problems. The civilians should theoretically rally behind the country, ignoring the prior internal conflict that jeopardizes the leaders popularity. A successful war should ensure the leaders remain popular, regardless of the prior domestic problems. Examples of internal conflict that leaders may look to divert attention from includes social, political, and religious tensions.
What path should the allied powers have gone down in order to create a world peace? Would the world consist of less poverty? How would world history and economy be different from how it is today? Nations opposing Adolf Hitler should have used collective security to potentially stop a world war. Three reasons why opposing nations should have used collective security is because if Hitler were appeased, then he would continue to imperialise other nations.
Liberalism in international relations is represented by contradicting claims about the necessity of the conflict as a way of resolving contention among members of the international community and vice versa highlights the possibility of peace between independent states. American presidnet Ronald Regan in his speech beore the British Parliament stated that government based on respect for individual freedoms is reflected in its foreign policy of restraint and peaceful inclinations. (Doyle, 1997, page 205) Throughout the times, liberalism has gone through many changes and has established different varieties of the theory. The first stage of liberalism, known as philosophic liberalism, lasted from the 17th to the early 19th century. A philosopher, John Locke was the first one to point out liberal thoughts and views.
And as the evolved theory of liberalism, theoretically neo-liberalism is essentially about making trade between nations easier than it used to be in the old times. Neo-liberalism focuses about freer movement of goods, resources and enterprises in a bid to always find cheaper resources, to maximize profits and efficiency. Aside from free trade, that is the product of traditional liberalism, multinational corporations and institutions are the products of neo-liberalism that developed in modern days. However, many experts argue that neo-liberalism is mercantilism that only covered with more friendly approaches. In theory, neo-liberalism might appears as populism; a perspective that took side with people and uphold economic equality, but in practice, for example in developing countries, many people that live with average standard of living, should temporary leave their way of life to work as a peasant of capitalism system that created by neo-liberalism.
However, during the intercultural understanding an overstatement of a new concept may also appear. Joseph Chan claimed that the fundamental goal of improving the economic wellbeing can be seen as a performance of social rights. Apparently, this similarity of a concept, which refers to a view social prosperity, do not imply a claim for rights. Also, Chan's analogy disregards the consideration of four principles of contemporary human rights, universal and inalienable, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated.5 By comparing rights contents within cultures may improve the understanding of the UDHR, however, without considering common responsibility and the states' duty, a supposed new interpretation within cultures shall be a misleading