It is necessary to understand the process of communication to draw a borderline between literal and metaphorical language. When speakers would like to describe something about a reality or experience in the world, they start by means of cognitive process in their minds. The speakers proceed to form the proposition as concise and relevant as possible for conveying the idea. Proposition is the idea or notion about something which is going to convey. In order to communicate this proposition, they will encode it by using linguistic codes which are conventional to pair the meaning of the idea with physical forms (text, utterance).
The Whorf hypothesis highlights how the cognition concepts are shaped by language and thinking is limited if one does not know certain word for that specific language, their understanding for that matter will be hard and may be differ from the actual meaning that has been presented (Fantini, 2010). It is impossible for one to think outside of their language as it necessitates how one thinks and they are bound with the language. This subject matter can be relate with the uses of word in forming a sentence or it can be called as morphology. People have to know the meaning of the word they used in other to send the message with the actual meaning towards someone. If the words used are not bringing the exact meaning as from what the person wants to say, it might lead to the misinterpretation from the one who receives the message and the way the message receiver understanding will differ from what he or she should
Text can be both written language and spoken language such as poem and conversation. The description of language or the text is to convey the idea, to create relation and identity between people and to explain the idea of the language. To study the text is to survey what is in the text and how text is coherent. The social practice represents the understanding about the role of ideology in term of the relation between language and society in each culture. It creates discourse practice which contains the text production’s process.
In essence, chunking is established as one of the mechanisms for human cognition process. It is crucial in explaining the relationship between the external environment and the internal cognitive processes (Reed, 2010). Empirical evidence in support of the relevance of chunking theory exists, especially in relation to the way that humans perceive words, paragraphs and words as single units, overshadowing their representation as comprising of collections of phonemes or letters. For example, the chunking theory explains how skilled readers have a tendency to be insensitive to deleted or repeated words. Studies that use information concerning timing of responses to ascertain the presence of chunks exemplifies evidence on the relevance of the chunking theory are particularly useful in understanding effectiveness.
Traditionally, literacy has been narrowed as individuals’ ability to read and write. However, this term encompasses handling language socially and culturally. Different settings, domains, venues, and channel of communication among other elements are necessary to interpret what is read and to write what is intended to communicate. Hernandez-Zamora (2008) claims literacy is a difficult term to be defined due to it refers to different issues simultaneously. For instance, literacy has been used to define the individuals’ ability to read and write, to describe social and cultural practices which emerge from a symbolic technology to represent words and ideas through graphic signs, or the process of becoming literate through formal or informal instruction.
Audry Adwiana Putri – 1801441890 1. Why does word choice make a difference? During the process of communication, humans will use words to create meanings and they will then share it to the receiver. Hence, it is indeed crucial for humans to selectively pick the right word, in the right context, as word choice does make a difference in the decoding process. First of all, the presence of word barrier should alert us to meticulously pick the right words during communication.
Languages are complex because they are made up of many components. Some components include the culture, meaning, and interpretation. The way people understand language has to do mostly with their culture and their understanding of what is being said. Also, depending upon where someone is raised, the pronunciation of certain words can be different and therefore it influences the understanding. My goal in this paper is to demonstrate that language and culture are intertwined.
Each discipline is bounded by their own methodology, epistemology and knowledge that shape the language used and how one articulates themselves. As Wear (1999) notes (as cited in Bracken & Oughten, 2006), specific disciplines use terminology or ‘dialects’ which although sound like common language, can have different meanings and interpretation across the disciplines. The dangers of leaving a word unquestioned is the risk of non-experts acquiring a false sense of understanding which can ultimately snowball into further miscommunication and frustration as the discussion develops (Bracken & Oughten, 2006). In this respect, mentors can help to reflect on theses issues and facilitate dialogue on these language differences. This provides an opportunity for members to negotiate meanings and unpack certain assumptions and values attached to the word (Thompson, 2009).
Who are we? What forms one's identity? Language is a important element of culture and culture is known to be crucial definer of one's identity. Language connects people to a certain identity and allows them to communicate their ideas and values to themselves and the world... In other words language is important as it allows people to express their thoughts as well as beliefs.
A translator may subject him-/herself either to the original text, with the norms it has realized, or to the norms active in the target culture, or in that section of it which would host the end product. Translation is a complicated task, during which the meaning of the source-language text should be conveyed to the target-language readers. In other words, translation can be defined as encoding the meaning and form in the target language by means of the decoded meaning and form of the source language. Different theorists state various definitions for translation. The concept of norms in translation theory was