This will ensure construct, external and internal validity and reliability. Comprehensive and systematic organisation of data by means of a database is of utmost importance to strengthen the study. 4.4 DATA ANALYSIS METHOD Because case studies tend to be exploratory, most end with implications for further study. The researcher may be able to identify significant variables that emerged during the research and suggest studies related to these. Yin (2003a) maintains that data analysis consists of "examining, categorizing, tabulating, testing, or otherwise recombining both quantitative and qualitative evidence to address the initial propositions of a study" According to Yin there are the following analytic strategies for case studies: 1.
• Demonstrate clear understanding of the research topic including theories and definitions • Identify the recognised thinkers • Discuss what research has been done in this area and evaluate it • Find gaps in the current research areas and formulate a research question • Identify methods to use in the specific research area • Insure to convince the reader that the research question is significant, important and interesting • Include up to date research material and, ensure it is relevant. • Insure to reverence all studies and data in full (M. Saunders & Lewis, 2012) The question is what is the importance of doing a Literature review? Foremost to conduct a literature review, the researcher needs to find all previous studies done on a specific subject area. It will provide a clear understanding to the reader regarding the analyses and findings of previous studies done. From these findings, the researchers can develop their own research questions and, furthermore,
The time has come for a reaffirmation of age-old concepts like pastoralism, romanticism, transcendentalism and naturalism, which define and explore man’s relation to nature. In the light of the present environmental awareness, redirecting human consciousness to a full consideration of its proper place in a threatened natural world can be the most important function of literature today (Love
The definitions, therefore, usually include additional adjectives such as aesthetic or artistic to distinguish literary works from texts such as newspapers, scientific textbooks, magazines, legal documents, brochures, and so on. Hamlyn (1998) stated that literature in the word originally meant all written language. More formally, literature is defined, according to one dictionary, as writing in which expression and form, in connection with ideas of permanent and universal interest, are characteristic or essential features, as poetry, romance, history, biography, essay etc. Not all good books are literature, but all literature is good, interesting, significant and well written. Based on those definitions above the researcher gives understanding that the literature is more than writing.
According to Guzzo, et.al. (1987), meta-analysis is a quantitative form of literature review. Literature reviews are acknowledged as valuable contributions to the advancement of science. If done well, it helps researchers sum up where researches have been and where they need to go next. It identifies gaps in new knowledge and suggests new directions for future research.
467). In other words, literature review is how someone selects and utilizes the sources as their background theories in writing process. Critical thinking is necessary due to examine the gathered source which needs paraphrasing as one of the techniques to put up the ideas in one’s writing. The process of paraphrasing as the source integrated activity refers to the term textual borrowing concept which defined as one of the writing from the source or textual borrowing technique which is defined as the process of implementing some information in writing a scientific paper (Amsberry, 2010). Developing a critical thinking based on the reading material in order to argue one’s opinion is the essence of textual borrowing (Howard, et.al, 2010).
What is the implication of cohesion transfer for foreign language pedagogy? Purpose of the Study In accordance with the research problems presented above, the present study seeks to examine: the realization of the lexical cohesion in the source text, the transfer of the lexical cohesion from the source text to the target text, and the implication of cohesion transfers for foreign language pedagogy. Method of the Study The study uses qualitative research method because it has something to do and is appropriate for the writer's field. Additionally, the topic of the current study is suitable to be examined by qualitative research. In order to get the answer to the research questions, the study uses one form of qualitative research, content analysis.
Review of related literature in the concerned field is of greater significance in locating the research problem. Hence, it plays the pivotal role at the crucial juncture of planning of the study. Review of related literature is an intellectual pursuit, essential to the development of the problem and to find out an effective approach to its solution. Review of related literature means to locate, to read and to evaluate the past as well as current literature of the research concerned with the planned investigation. It is a serious step of research which includes a relevant literature more extensively.
Local jurisdictions should ensure that new development is located, designed and built to withstand natural disasters. They should use the information from the hazard and risk assessment, land use plans and zoning regulations to limit the development of hazard-prone areas. Use compatible floodplains and other hazardous areas should be included in local planning and zoning so that losses are reduced. The area may have a high value for recreation, fish and wildlife reserves, open spaces, or other community
2.0 INTRODUCTION A literature review is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers. In writing the literature review, our purpose is to convey to your reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic, and what their strengths and weaknesses are. As a piece of writing, the literature review must be defined by a guiding concept .It is not just a descriptive list of the material available, or a set of summaries. A literature review must be able to organize around and related directly to the thesis or research question we are developing. It also must synthesize results into a summary of what is and is not known.