CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Mapping Mapping is a process of map making where the earth features were represented in graphical form by using point, line and area symbols. Generally, when making maps, it involves cartographic disciplines. The International Cartographic Association defines cartography as the discipline dealing with the conception, production, dissemination and study of maps. The word cartography itself came from Greek words which are khrates and graphein, meaning map and write. A Map usually drawn on a flat surface and fitted with scales.
This study of model era from paper and CAD-based design drawings covers the regular pipeline and looks at different calculations for every progression of the procedure. Research for three dimensional visualization of Digital City based on SketchUp and ArcGis As indicated by (Xu, Badawi, Fan, Ren, and Zhang, 2009) the representation of three dimensional city data is the precondition and establishment to build Digital City and the consistency of two dimensional and three dimensional GIS stages to make the Digital City all the more generally appropriate. This article firstly investigates a few sorts of three-dimensional representation programming. Furthermore, utilizing the Google SketchUp and ArcGIS as samples and examine the three dimensional perception of city data and displaying, and in conclusion, doing examination on the three-dimensional model development process. Visual three dimensional Modeling from
Geological Map Definition: A geologic map is a map made to show geological features, it display the arrangement of geologic features of a particular area. These features can include such things as types of rocks, minerals, faults and groundwater. From studying a geologic map the user can better understand possible dangers like the potential for floods or earthquakes and it helps to locate important deposits of energy resources such as water, natural gas, oil and minerals. The users of geologic maps can gain a better understanding of Earths makeup through the use of colors, lines, symbols and letters. The main features of geologic maps are its colors, each color represents a different geologic unit.
Cartography is the science or the practice of making maps. Maps are one means by which scientists distribute their ideas and pass them on to future generations (Merriam 1996). Maps are one of the most important records of our global world, they not only show where each country, city, sea… is but also teaches lots of things about the past. Cartography improved a lot in the age of exploration. The first whole world map began in the early 16th century following the voyages of the Spanish and other Europeans to the Americas, known as the New World.
When using the elements of design, it is important to know which elements are necessary and which are not. Knowing this will keep your layouts clutterless and help strengthen your design. We will explore each of these elements in this section. Lines The first element of design is the line. Lines can be used in a variety of ways in a layout: they help to organize information; they can direct your readers ' eye as to the
Far reaching issues like that of wetlands can be effectively tended to with the assistance of GIS and remote detecting advances. GIS gathers and gives diverse parts of spatial data under one framework. Topographical information can be effectively investigated and worked with. This permits us to depict distinctive variations of advanced data in more target ways. The two variations of advanced spatial information, GIS and Remote Sensing go one next to the other to help in urban arranging.
In forest management and decision making, there is a continuous need for high quality information on forest and the state of forest resources can be monitored by a form of map. Forest maps are effective tool for identifying the state of forest resources and monitoring ongoing spatial
2.2.5 History of development in GIS A GIS (geographic or geospatial information system) is a modern extension of traditional cartography with one fundamental similarity and two essential differences. The similarity lies in the fact that both a cartographic document and a GIS contain examples of a base map to which additional data can be added. The differences are that there is no limit to the amount of additional data that can be added to a GIS map and secondly the GIS uses analysis and statistics to present data in support of particular arguments which a cartographic map cannot do. Cartographic maps are often extremely simplified as there are limits to the amount of data that can be physically and meaningfully stored on a small map. There
On the 3D model, the process of making or using it as reference for discussion and planning facilitates the handling of spatial data. A common understanding of the landscape significantly enhances the capacity of individuals to analyze the territory. This makes 3D models excellent tools in dealing with issues and conflicts associated with the territory and the use of its resources. Furthermore, P3DM has been successfully used in preparing land and resource use plans, watershed management plans,