1. INTRODUCTION TO MICROSCOPY A microscope is an instrument used to see objects that are very small for the naked eye. The science of examining small objects using such a tool is called microscopy. Microscopic means invisible to the eye except aided by a microscope. 2.
A spectrophotometer is an instrument used for spectrophotometry that measures the amount of the intensity of light absorbed by the sample solution. Principle A spectrophotometer is used in spectrophotometry to measure the light absorbance of a certain chemical substances. Concentration of a certain substances can be measured by determining the extent of absorption of light at the appropriate wavelength. Every substance absorbs
1.1. UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRY Spectroscopy is the measurement and interpretation of electromagnetic radiation absorbed or emitted when the molecules or atoms or ions of a sample move from one energy state to another energy state. Spectroscopy is a general methodology that can be adapted in many ways to extract the information you need (energies of electronic, vibrational, rotational states, structure and symmetry of molecules, dynamic information). Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry is one of the most frequently employed techniques in Pharmaceutical analysis. It involves the measurement of the amount of Ultraviolet (190-380nm) radiation by a substance in a solution.
Biuret test is adopted to quantify proteins in fluid by using a spectrophotometer. The biuret solution is a blue solution made up of sodium hydroxide and copper (II) sulfate which turns pink or violet in the presence of proteins, peptides and compounds containing 2 or more peptide linkage. A spectrophotometer measures the respective amounts of light consisting of different wavelengths absorbed and transmitted by a pigment solution. Spectrophotometer works when white light is separated into lights of different wavelengths by a prism which different colors of light passes through the sample. The transmitted light strikes a photoelectric tube, converting light energy to electric current that is measured by a galvanometer.
Laser and green fluorescence excite the specimen and it goes under the mirrors scanning in the device. The emitted light by the laser passes a dichroic mirror and it focused to the pinhole (figure 4). Then it is detected by the microscope's camera or photodetector. It should be noted that the sample is being scanned point by point and to get a complete image the computer must build up the image of one pixel at a time. The mirrors in a confocal microscope are controlled by a computer that can store and analyze the produced data.
Differential Thermal Analysis, Differential Scaning calorimetry,Therom mechanical Analysis, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis. Titrimeteric Methods Non-aqueous titration , redox titrations, diazotization titration and complexometric titration. What is chromotography A Russian botanist, Mikhail Tswett (1872 - 1919), is credited with the first use of chromatography in 1906 when he separated plant pigments such as chlorophylls and xanthophylls. He passed them through a glass column packed with calcium carbonate. These pigments are coloured and thus the technique was named using the Greek terms, ‘chroma’ meaning ‘colour’, and ‘graphein’ meaning ‘to write’.
Fig 3.1 Archimedes density measurement apparatus 3.2.2 MICROSTRUCTURE Microstructure is defined as the structure of a material revealed by microscopy. The microstructure of a material can strongly influence the physical properties such as strength, toughness, hardness, high/low temperature behaviour, wear resistance and so on, which in turn govern the application of these materials. 18.104.22.168 OPTICAL MICROSCOPY Optical or light microscopy is the primary means for scientists and engineers to examine the microstructure of materials. A light microscope use either transmitted or reflected light for illumination. Reflected light microscopes are most commonly used for metallography studies, while transmitted light microscopes are used to examine transparent or semi-transparent materials mainly in biological studies.
the specimen that is being observed is to be seen on a glass slide for example in the investigation of a unicellular organism in the experiment a pond water sample was taken and the sample was then put on the glass slide which was then observed under the light and magnification of the light microscope . moreover the contrast of the microscope has to be set in a certain way that the specimen is clearly visible for this purpose sometimes but actually most of the times stains and special dyes are used in the specimen which is under observation but there was no dye used in the conducted experiment .dyes and stains are usually used to improve the contrast of the specimen and it absorbs the transmitting light and improves the overall observation of the specimen. Different parts of light microscope cooperate and help in the observation of the specimen taken, the light from the microscope that is transmitting on the specimen taken is focused by the condenser lens and then it is collected by the objective lens. The powers are then
This is due to the fact that numerous absorption bands are observed in the infrared spectra of organic substances, hence the probability of any two or more compounds having the same spectrum is negligible. 2.) This type of spectroscopy is used to determine the progress of a chemical reaction by extracting small portions from the mixture after every few intervals. The formation of a product is marked by the disappearance rate of an absorption band of a reactant or by the rate of appearance of the product’s characteristic absorption band. 3.)
What Are Microscope ? A microscope is an optical instrument that allows you to see objects which are not visible to the naked human eye. The most common type of microscope is called the optical microscope, which uses lens to for images from visible light. Another type of microscope is called electron microscope and the way they work is that, they form images from beams of electrons. Zacharias Janssen: The first person to invent a the light microscope is named Zacharias Jansen.