2.4.2 Motivation in Second Language Learning and Language Performance Besides gender, motivation is another individual differences (IDs) which was very important in explaining the SLL and SLA. Before going deeper into the claims made by the researcher, the understanding of the meaning and concept of motivation in language learning is very important. Motivation in general, was the forces that drive someone to do something or act in a particular way and it was known as the inner drive of a person. The only aspects of motivation that varies in individuals are the levels of motivation. In daily activities, there are forces that push an individual to act or do something and it goes the same with language learning.
As reported by Hutchinson&Waters (1987) 'Language needs are not learning needs. Although learners will need to use certain language structures or features in their target environments, this does not mean that they are ready to acquire them ' is the first thing I want to discuss. I suppose that Hutchinson &Waters include useful description of needs analysis and highlight its important role in course design. They also and explore the importance of learning needs. They maintain that ESP main aim is to teach English as a subject related to the learners ' needs and believe that what makes ESP different from General English 'is not the existence of a need as such but rather an awareness of the need. '
teacher credibility, which was not included in the earlier version of the study. “The key is the students’ perception that teachers have credibility in enhancing their learning,” says Professor John Hattie. “Students are very perceptive about knowing which teachers can make a difference to their learning. And teachers who command this credibility are most likely to make the difference. “The effects on achievement are high and the reason is that teachers who constantly show students they care, and know about the difference and impact they are having on them, are ‘visible’ and welcomed.” Professor Hattie’s latest research, published in his new book Visible Learning for Teachers, suggests that teacher credibility is one of the most important factors in all of learning.
Although the writing level and age of the students is vastly different, this article is valuable for the support of either immediate or delayed corrective feedback. The authors found that, while well-intentioned teacher may tend to provide elaborate forms of corrective feedback, teachers might be better to provide progressively less salient feedback, because it leads to the most desirable results. The main limitation in the article is that it is centred on college students’ English compositions. While this level of writing maturity is beyond the boundary of my research, there are cognitive and behavioural reactions to immediate correction that are shared in my research. The article also serves as an exemplary work on the subject of correction, feedback, and empirical educational research.
According to MacIntyre and Doucette report (2010) “willingness to communicate could be perceived as a readiness to speak in the L2 at a particular time with a specific person, and as such, is the final psychological step to the initiation of L2 communication”. Willingness to communicate is the most basic orientation towards the communication. Almost anyone is likely to respond to a direct question, but many would not continue or initiate interaction. McCroskey and Baer (1985) defined willingness to communicate as a stable tendency towards the communication, given the choice. WTC is considered to be of paramount importance to the realm of language teaching, due to its realization as the final intention to the initiation of the communication.
Which is the best approach to be implemented? This question relates to a long-standing debate among language teachers in the context of EFL/ESL, since the two had their own significances for Particular learner progress. On one side, deductive approach can be effective with students of a lower level, who are beginning to learn the basic structures of the language, or with students who are accustomed to a more traditional style of learning (Goner, Philips, and Walters,1995,p.134). Also, Deductive approach goes straightforwardly to the point and can, therefore, be time-saving for the teacher and the class. Robinson (1996) proved that learners performed grammatical tasks better and reacted faster in deductive rather than inductive teaching.
While it is a bit of an exaggeration, students clearly feel that classroom-based speaking practice does not prepare them for the real world. Is why I choose to do small but very concrete steps on how to express a simple idea like What are the priorities on your life?, giving the example with my ideas on the board as the same time it was expressed, the students seemed to get the activity instruction clearly so they proceeded to wrote and then speak with a partner about they priorities they wrote down before. Research by Peter Skehan5 on Task-based Learning shows that giving student’s preparation time significantly increases the range of language used in the performance of the task, whereas the accuracy of the language is not as influenced. If this is so, then it seems sensible to give students preparation time when encouraging them to use new language.
According to some recent research, there is a strong correlation between teachers’ teaching and students’ school success (Diaz-Maggioli, 2004; Sparks, 2002). In other words, different teachers adopt various teaching models or practices in order to improve and enhance their professional skills in the field of EFL. In this sense, Huber-man (1989), believes that teachers’ careers include cycles of conflict or
For instance, learners cannot understand a reading passage if they do not have an adequate vocabulary and do not have the skills to guess meaning from context. In summary, vocabulary knowledge is an essential component of learning a second language for several reasons. Both native speakers and learners recognize the importance of getting the words right because lexical errors are numerous and disruptive. Thus, it is important for learners to have good lexical skills in order to produce sentences and to understand them correctly (Gass & Selinker, 2001). One way to decrease the problem is to help students in becoming independent learners during the process of second language vocabulary learning (Maleki, 2010).
Motivation is seen not only as necessary but sufficient to ensure academic success. As a result, the author of the strengths approach suggests while learning necessary skills may be a factor in student success, the most important factor a student needs is motivation. Without motivation, a students ability to develop and learn new skills will not occur. Similar to this; if students are not motivated, the impact of student support will be minimal. Futhermore as stated by Ogina and Mampane (2013) different students have different learning methods, and as a result some students need more support and guidance depending on their learning methods.