Gorman (2004) says: “Motivation is an attempt to explain the ‘why’ of all forms of behaviour and is concerned with goal-directed behaviour.” Have you ever asked yourself the question, “What is my motivation for doing a specific task?” We need to know why we need to do something in order to effectively perform it. As stated by Cherry (2014) “Emotion is often defined as a complex state of feeling that results in physical and psychological changes that influence thought and
Pintrich & Schunk (1996) say that these cognitive theories are homeostatic since there is a need “to make behaviors consistent” (p. 50). As Woolfolk (1987) claims that attribution theories are cognitive theories “concerning how we explain behavior and outcomes, especially successes and failures” (p. 316). These theories describe how the individual‘s explanations, justifications, and excuses influence motivation. Bernard Weiner is one of the important educational psychologists responsible for relating attribution theory to school learning (as mentioned by Woolfolk, 1987). According to Weiner, most of the causes to which students attribute their successes or failures can be characterized along three different dimensions: as internal or external (inside or outside the person), as stable
These adjustments help to ensure students achieve, targeted standards-based learning goals within a set time frame. Although formative assessment strategies appear in a variety of formats, there are some distinct ways to distinguish them from summative assessments. We do not hold students accountable in "grade book fashion" for skills and concepts they have just been introduced to or are learning. The formative assessment will help our teachers determine next steps during the learning process as the instruction approaches the summative assessment of student
The probability of success for a student relies on their desired and belief as it is their expected probability (Dominik Becker 2013). There is a difference between students’ realistic aspirations and subjective expected probability of the completion of academic success (Domink Becker 2013:456). Nevertheless, self-fulfilling prophecies and the classroom socioeconomic affect student educational transitions as found in this article. Although the cost of the undertaking, examines the value from benefits in order to display that the cost of the undertaking is greater than the benefits according to Becker (2013). In order to understand self-fulfilling prophecy, Becker suggests other variables should be considered instead of observing the grades of students or the number of years a teacher has taught.
There can be identified two types of behavior namely deliberate and planned. This theory envisages people’s deliberate behavior. An attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control determine intention”. TPB postulates that individual’s attitude towards a particular task influence their intention to execute the
It can show if a school curriculum is meeting the academic requirements that are expected of them and can often determine if a student is struggling and needs extra support. This form of testing is effective when determining a student's placement in classes that may move at a different pace because of skill level. “Test scores may be used, along with other information about students, to diagnose learning needs, so that educators can provide appropriate services, instruction, or academic support (http://edglossary.org/academic-support/)” (Liberty Concepts). Although standardized testing is seen to have some benefits, this is far outweighed by the downfalls. Standardized tests contradict the belief that all students are different but are given tests that treat them as if they are all the same.
Assessment Assessment is used to determine if learning has occurred during instructional process (Smith and Ragan, 2005, pg.10). There are 2 form of assessment in the program: formative assessment and summative assessment. Learners will be evaluated by verbal questionings and 1 supervised practice using a skill checklist (Appendix 2) as formative assessment. From Melland and Volden (1998) discussion, classroom assessment is a type of formative assessment, 3 domains of learning which is cognitive, psychomotor and affective can be assess. When engaged in instructional design, it is less common for the designer to have affective objectives than cognitive objectives (Smith and Ragan, 2005, pg.
Numerous research has shown that intrinsic motivation is associated with, and predicts positive academic outcomes. On the other hand, individuals with lower levels of intrinsic motivation have shown declines in academic progression throughout elementary and middle school years. Intrinsic motivation has been defined in the text as classroom conduct, determination, cognitive adaptability, coping skills, and commitment (Haimovitz, Wormington, & Corpus, 2011). Other research on intrinsic motivation compiled by Deci, Koestner, & Ryan (1999) has also shown an associated with external rewards and intrinsic drive. According to Dweck’s social-cognitive theory of motivation, individuals have varying beliefs on achievement depending on the level of
Lorimer’s research does not offer the same quantitative substance Scripp and Paradis present through their research as demonstrated through marked improvement in student scores and closing achievement gaps. The value of the mixed methodology in the second study presents student learning in an arts integration capacity; as well as a tool for affecting equitable student learning outcomes. In Scripp and Paradis’ study, student achievement is dependent on teacher development, which is only a brief component of Lorimer’s research. Each study presents correlations between student achievement and arts integration; Lorimer exemplifies student achievement as increased student engagement, and Scripp and Paradis exemplify student achievement as higher assessment scores. However, each study references arts integration aside from STEAM learning objectives.
STUDY SKILLS Study skills or study strategies are approaches applied to learning. They are generally critical to success in school/university, considered essential for acquiring good grades, and useful for learning throughout one’s life. “You will never know what you can really do until and unless you free yourself from the way you have always done it.” A person should study and continue studying so that he can learn new-new skills. Some students think that their IQ level is less than the other students. And it’s often taken for granted that academic success is the result of ‘being clever’ and that is something you are blessed with or not at birth.
In the article “ Brainology: Transforming Students’ Motivation to Learn” by, Carol S. Dweck, she differentiates the two different kinds of mindsets that students have when learning. Those mindsets are fixed and growth. A student with a fixed mindset has the mentality that every student has a substantial amount of intelligence. However, a student with a growth mindset realizes their intelligence is through learning. Students with a fixed mindset tend to give up once they make a mistake, but students with growth mindsets learn from their mistakes.