But environmental ethics and the concept of moral status invite us to look beyond only human goods. Rather, they invite us to consider that the common good includes human and non-human goods: That the common good includes not only those environmental conditions that enhance the fulfillment of men 's and women 's lives but that the common good also includes the well-being of the natural world for its own
-Harmony with Nature. Man should, in every way, live in harmony with nature. -Dominant over Nature. It is a big challenge for the human to control nature. Starting from air conditioning to the green revolution has resulted from having met this challenge.
However, the physical environment (nature/land) can directly limits, dictate and control human’s activities upon it. Individuals are bound to their environmental setting and cannot deviate, they only respond to the stimuli of nature’s dictation. The endeavor of this essay is to assess the theory of possibilism in man-environment relationship. Prior to assessment the terms environment and environmental possibilism are to be defined. According to Norton (2002) environment denote a set of physical material that surrounds humanity.
The typical view of designed landscapes has often been tied to their visual qualities. Landscape design in this context is viewed as a tool for adding aesthetic values to different open spaces. This view produces spaces with typical features that can meet a prior image of how a designed landscape should look like without any consideration of other equally important aspects –. In addition, the dominance of aesthetics as a goal for designed landscapes decreases the functionality of its elements. With the pressure of urbanization, a view of a landscape that is not aware of its full potential may prioritize other economic and services land uses at the expense of open spaces.
It is a response to environmental stimuli, the individual 's goals and his or her ability to adapt to or cope with differences between the two (Baum, Singer, and Baum 1981; Lazarus 1982) Information overload is a source of environmental stress, and as per many people, the urban environment is pushing the limit of one 's ability to cope with and adapt to, information overload and the resulting cumulative stress. This over-load of information leads to cognitive failure (Singer and Glass 1972), desensitization to setting, and decreased environmental awareness. The result is reduced sensory pleasure and degraded quality of experience. Relevancy of environmental information is extremely critical. According to Hebb 's preferred arousal theory (1949, people prefer settings with a desired level of stimulus.
If urban cities started having their own farms in the locality, transportation of foods from far locations would have a major decrease. Transportation of produces is a major cost to a country and is also not environmentally- friendly. The fossil fuel consumption in transportation with in a country and internationally is at an alarming high level. This pollutes the environment leaving large carbon footprints. Pollution is directly proportional to increase in population, hence with time this process will get even more damaging to the environment.
Buying a home near to all of the local amenities as well as good transport links increases the value of a property. Any plans to demolish schools, reduce transport links or a gradual shift of the local employment centre will negatively affect the property value. 2. Geographical Stability This is a condition specific to areas of geographical or geological instability. Areas that are prone to the effects of natural phenomena, such as flooding, tsunamis, earthquakes or volcanic activity are poor choices for buying property.
Two different area standing side by side separated by status and rights. The development and management of sustainable urban agglomerations are major challenges on a global scale. The most significant part of my academic journey as my concern in city inequality was working with informal settlement to develop an alternative design and to upgrade the settlement of the Winongo and Gajahwong riverside settlement in Yogyakarta together with Arkom Jogja. The term of informal settlement always remain a negative impression to most of the city image. Informal area, which somehow mixed with slum area, considers being an obstacle for a city to grow better, and then we try to create defensive architecture: designing the informal out of cities.
Outcome Dimension 2: Natural Environment and Resources Goal To protect and conserve ecosystems and natural resources Context The natural environment provides many social and economic benefits and is an essential component of urban sustainability. The environment provides food, water, and other essential commodities. Healthy ecosystems regulate the climate and attenuate the effects of extreme weather events, while improving residents’ quality of life and well-being. However, urbanization and overconsumption of resources are placing great pressure on natural environments. Expansion of urban areas results in loss of natural habitats and decimation of biodiversity.
Today , big cities faces environmental challenges including air pollution, increasing energy demands, poor waste management ,all of which directly impact on human health and well-being(UN-habitat 2008). The effects of ongoing human actions in the form of urbanization currently threaten the quality of life and stability of human societies around the globe (UN –habitat 2011). There are some main issues/crisis that causes ecological imbalances in community/environment. These crisis include globalwarming ,urbanization, deforestation, N2o production, pollution, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, ocean acidification etc. Ecological crisis can be specific or it may also cause extinction of species.