The philosopher P. Rossi affirms that the human being has to deal with nature in a more conciliatory way receding from the ideology of the domain of the man on nature and from the submission of man to nature. The intermediate position, the one of the respect of nature, gives rise to the human sense of moral duty to proceed towards sustainable design. This philosophy is based on the assumption of the volunteer limitation of our capacity of manipulation and alteration of nature. Because of the scientific and technical conquests, for the first time since the human being is on Earth, we are responsible of the destiny of our planet and of the other human beings. This implies respect towards nature.
At the point when individuals see themselves as to be the bosses of the earth and have territory over it they will probably mishandle it and endeavor it. A lot of our routine instruction is learning "about" nature. We examine nature as something separate from us and as a question which is helpful to us. We appear to see ourselves as either experts of nature or, if more edified, then stewards of nature. We examine nature since we wish to know our hireling or our protectorate to make best utilization of nature for a drawn out period.
From Emerson’s nature, to Thoreau’s Walden, one can trace the developing concerns regarding human interaction and connection with nature. The discourse continued in the writing and general speaking of renowned naturalists and writers of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century such as John Muir (1838-1914), and Aldo Leopold (1887-19948). It happens that much of what was written, discussed and actually concluded primarily took the forms of reference conservation and habitat preservation instead of environmental quality, environmental awareness and environmental literacy that are the main concerns of today (UNEP,
In works by writers from Crèvecoeur to Wendell Berry, John Muir to Aldo Leopold, Rachel Carson to Leslie Silko, Mary Austin to Edward Abbey, he examines enduring environmental themes such as the dream of relinquishment, the personification of the nonhuman, attentiveness to environmental cycles, a devotion to place, and a prophetic awareness of possible ecocatastrophe. At the center of this study we find an image of Walden as a quest for greater environmental awareness, an impetus and guide for Buell as he develops a new vision of environmental writing and seeks a new way of conceiving the relation between human imagination and environmental actuality in the age of industrialization” (The Environmental Imagination — Lawrence Buell | Harvard
Ecocriticism emerges in the field of literary criticism in the face of the environmental degradation and ecological crisis. Ecocriticism is the study of the relationship between literature and the physical environment, it takes an earth centered approach to literary studies .Despite the broad scope of inquiry and disparate levels of sophistication, all ecological criticism shares one fundamental premise the human culture is connected to the physical world, affecting it and affected by it. Ecocriticism takes as its subject the interconnection between nature and culture, specifically the cultural artifacts of language and literature. Shakespeare’s The Tempest has to offer, as it also speaks the issue of morality, primogeniture and even carrier some interesting Eco-critical reading. The play explores the relationship between man and nature further probes the destruction of the original social when the ecological balance is broken.
Nature is the profound blessing that human can ever receive in the Earth. As of sayings goes that literature is a mirror of life; in modern connotation the life does not simply mean life of human alone and it includes life of non-human too. Literary theories help to re-interpret the text in a better way to unwrap the multiple meanings hidden in it. A survey of contemporary literature deals with the environmental philosophy helps to explore leading theories in this area which includes anthropocentricism, biocentrism, ecocentrism, ecocriticism and ecofeminism. Ecocriticism is one of the significant theories in literature which helps to understand the relationship between literature and physical environment.
In the stories, “To Build a Fire”, “The Jungle”, and “Food Product Design”, the authors of each story want the readers to recognize the question: What aspect of naturalism they use to reveal the reality in our lives? To specify and reveal this, the authors use conflicts and ideals which are men’s ability to conquer the environment and people cannot change their destiny to signify naturalism. Naturalism is a literary movement that emphasizes on the observation of reality. It is mainly from Charles Darwin 's Darwinism that nature is beyond one 's control. It mainly focuses on these things.
He thoroughly explores several disciplines like language and criticism, ecology and ethics, natural sciences and social sciences, geography and history in order to settle the primary goals of an ecocritic who compunctiously “judges the merits and faults of writings that depict the effects of culture upon nature, with a view toward celebrating nature, berating its despoilers and reversing their harm through political action” (69). In the introduction to the edited volume Beyond Nature Writing: Expanding the Boundaries of Ecocrticism, Kathleen R. Wallace and Karla Armbruster refer to John Elder’s definition of nature writing as ‘a form of personal reflective essay grounded in . . . the natural world .
‘Ecology’ is delineated as the scientific study of the relationship between the organisms and the environment. The theory Ecological Imperialism insinuates that colonization or annexation was not only a way of cultural and political oppression or tyranny, but also a kind of environmental intimidation and violence. Ghosh in this novel, The Hungry Tide created two groups of characters in order to contextualize an enormous ecological catastrophe faced by our world today. One group embodied to maintain the ecological sustainabilityis the representatives of deep ecology. The other group pursuing material prosperity with the aid of recent emerging technologies is represented as the supporters of shallow ecology.
: 15203947 Natural is a word with multiple meanings, used by different people in very different ways, and each one with varied definitions. Naturalness is a condition imagined by many scientists to persist over time in the absence of human intervention. Scientists, managers, and conservationists assumed that natural conditions could be preserved and that doing so would assure long-term conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems. Our ecosystem is in a state of constant dynamic change and recognition of the dynamics of natural systems raise questions about what naturalness even is. In recent decades, with the impact of human interference in nature, the natural ecosystem is dynamically changing and adapting to the new conditions.