There are currently known that over 170 amino acids occur in organisms but only 20 are commonly found in proteins. R groups determine the chemical properties of the amino acids. The simplest amino acids have hydrocarbons as side chains which are neutral and non-polar or hydrophobic. They are not soluble in water. Amino acids with a polar R group are neutral and polar or hydrophilic.
The nucleophilic attack pushes the carbonyl electrons onto the carbonyl oxygen, which forms a short-lived intermediate. The third step is where the oxyanion electrons reform the bond with the aromatic amino acid. Then the bond between the carboxyl-terminus of the amino acid and the n-terminus of the residue is cleaved and its electrons are used to take out the hydrogen of the nitrogen on the Histidine 57. The c-terminal side of the polypeptide is free to dissociate form the active site. Step four is basically just where water can now enter and bind to the active site through hydrogen bonding, which is between the hydrogen atoms of water and the Histidine-57 nitrogen.
Nucleotides are made up of three parts; a sugar base called ribose, a phosphate groups and an organic/nitrogenous base. The most common organic bases are adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine. Adenine and guanine are purines meaning large molecule, cytosine and thymine are pyrimidines meaning
Student’s Name Professor’s Name Subject DD Month YYYY Question Answer Question 1: Section (a): Composition of Nucleosomes The nucleosome is the basic unit of the DNA and forms the building block of chromatin. Chromatin is a complex of the DNA and the cellular histone protein cores forming eukaryotic chromosomes. Structurally, the nucleosome core particle comprises 1.6 left-handed superhelical turns of DNA wound around a protein complex called the histone octamer, which consists of 2 copies each of the core histones attached to the central tetramer H3/H4. The latter is flanked by two H2A/H2B dimers (Kornberg 868). The histone octamer, therefore, is a set of the 8 basic proteins whose fundamental structure of a single molecule includes three
DNA consist of macromolecules which are; nitrogenous base, a phosphate sugar backbone and a pentose sugar. DNA has a double helical structure due to the coiling of two biopolymer strands. This double helix structure is made of nucleotides composed of either, thymine, guanine, cytosine or adenine, a monosaccharide(deoxyribose) and a phosphate group. Covalent bonds join the nucleotides together in a chain form. This is between the deoxyribose sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate component of the other nucleotide, which brings about the alternating sugar phosphate backbone.All biological information is stored in DNA which makes every organism unique.
Chapter I General Introduction A. Bacterial nucleoid Bacteria lacks nucleus and other membrane bound organelles. Hence all the cellular components, including proteins, DNA, RNA and other compounds are located within inside the cytosol. The region of the cell which encompasses the bacterial genomic DNA is termed ‘Nucleoid’. Nucleoid is composed largely of DNA and small amounts of proteins and RNA (Dillon and Dorman, 2010; Dorman, 2014a; Thanbichler et al., 2005). The genomic DNA is organized for storage in ways that are compatible with all the major DNA-related processes like replication, transcription and chromosome segregation.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule found in all forms of life that is passed down from parents to offspring. What makes each DNA unique is the chemical makeup of the molecule sometimes referred to as the “blueprint of life.” (BIO). DNA is made up of nucleotides consisting of a sugar, a phosphate and a base pair. About six million nucleotide base pairs make up DNA in each cell. Retrieving this amount of data is both exhausting and time consuming.
2.11 Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometer in size (nanometer is unit of length in metric system equivalent to one billionth of a meter (0.000, 000,001) representation is nm. 2.12 Base fluid: In nanofluids the base fluids are the fluids in which nanoparticles are to be adjourned. Some common base fluids are water, oil etc. 2.13 CNT: The carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are hollow cylindrical nano configurations whose walls are composed of heavy sheets of carbon. 2.14 SWNT: Single wall nanotubes have a very trivial diameter as matched to their length.
Introduction: Biomolecule is a macromolecule that exists in either as protein or nucleic acid in living organism. Carbohydrates are one of the examples of macromolecules that made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only. It derive its’ name from general formula (CH₂O)n where n is more or equal to 3. Carbohydrates can store as starch in plants and glycogen in animals can also be found in milk, bread, rice and etc. It can be classified into four types which are monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.