Speaking: 1.1. The Definition of speaking: Speaking is an indispensable skill that language learners should master with the other language skills. It is defined as a convoluted process of sending and receiving messages through the use of verbal expressions, but it also includes non verbal symbols such as gestures and facial expressions. Hedge (2000) defines speaking as “a skill by which they [people] are judged while first impressions are being formed. "(p.261).That is to say speaking is an essential skill which deserves more attention in both first and second language because it reflects people’s thoughts and personalities.
Or in other words, people need to have a sufficient level of knowledge to understand cross-cultural differences, a mindfulness to monitor and comprehend cross-cultural situations, and the ability to adapt their behavior in appropriate way in various cross-cultural situations. People who have these three traits have a high level of CQ (Thomas &Inkson, 2003). Developing cultural intelligence takes a considerable amount of time and this process is illustrated in Figure 3 as
and many studies are also employing many researcher that support the claim that positive self-talk can be effective strategy for better performance. Hatzigeorgiadis et al (2004) illustrated the relationship between self talk and confidence. so to rise the level of performance, we have to gain more confidence, which is influenced by positive
Also, rewards and feedback play a role in an individual’s motivation. Opportunities for self-direction such as the recognition of feelings and choices are said to create a greater feeling of autonomy or self-determination. It has been found that in students, they tend to have greater intrinsic motivation
High motivation in language learning will eventually lead the students to have bigger chances of achieving their learning goal. Although motivation was not synonymous with achievement, but the effect of motivation drove the learners to the achievement. The motivation encouraged the learner to be more engaged with the activities during the language lesson and has more drive in achieving the language goals. Maehr (1989) reasserted the importance of motivation by emphasizing that the students’ motivation in learning has a positive effect on their academic performance. This suggested that motivation affects students’ academic performance in
Therefore, students who have a greater desire to learn often increase the probability that they will learn. In addition, motivation has a positive outlook on student learning and how they connect with the subject matter. In fact, motivation often guides goal oriented behavior; increases effort; increase initiation of activities; improve persistence; develop cognitive functioning, and generally lead to improving performance. Basically, there are two types of motivation students employed they are intrinsic and extrinsic. Students who use intrinsic motivation have an inner desire or natural tendency to learn.
There are a few rules to follow when it comes to delivering speech: first of all, one should keep in mind that the higher the position of the speaker, the more seriously they will be taken. To give out an effective speech and have an impact, the messenger should be confident and skilled. The conveyer of the speech should be a person with authority, a skilled individual who confident enough to speak up properly. That way, the message is surely going to get across safely. In addition, it is important to note that sometimes, interruptions can come in handy.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION A. BACKGROUND OF RESEARCH English language is increasingly becoming an important lingua franca which is used in business, technological and academic communication (Dawit & Abiy, 2013). This trend of English globalization has made it imperative for graduates to be proficient in oral communication skills since competence in oral communication (in listening and speaking) is a prerequisite to students’ academic, personal and professional success in life. Oral communication competence can contribute to individuals’ social adjustment and participation in satisfying interpersonal relationship (Sherwyn, Michael & Judy, 2000). Effective use of English as a second language (ESL) or foreign language (EFL) in oral communication is, without a doubt, one of the most common, but also highly complex activities people need to learn for their interpersonal communication.
Obviously some people are more talented than others in this respect. The goal of counselling training is to build on these natural abilities so that they become effective skills that can guide a person to consider the many possible solutions available to their problem, while validating their emotional perspective about the
Research has shown that keyword mnemonics are an effective device in accelerating learning speed and in boosting immediate recall of second-language vocabulary. However, other research (van Hall & Candia Mahn, 1997) indicates that a greater degree of forgetting is associated with the keyword mnemonic strategy relative to a non-mnemonic strategy (e.g., rote learning). Thus, a discussion of the feasibility of keyword mnemonics in learning foreign language vocabulary must consider the various factors affecting the efficacy of the keyword mnemonic strategy in relation to a non-mnemonic learning strategy.