Phonological awareness is can be a predicator of a student’s literacy suggest. Each stage of phonological awareness requires the student to auditorialy manipulate sounds. Children first learn how to rhyme. Print awareness had two main sections, alphabet knowledge and concepts of print. Alphabet knowledge in ones understanding of the symbol and sound relationship in a language structure.
Student say that acquiring vocabulary in a second language is very difficult, using their native language is an instinct, therefore they lack confidence in using a second language to communicate with others. Sometimes it is not easy for students to find the words when they are asked to speak in class. They avoid participating or take their time to build ideas in their mind, searching for the right words to answer. “Vocabulary learning is an essential part of foreign language learning as the meanings of new words are very often emphasized, whether in books or in classrooms. It is also central to language teaching and is of paramount importance to a language
Once they have mastered the five aspects of language they will need to acquire the linguistic knowledge in oral and written forms. The child must have a good grasp of the oral language prior to writing. Oral language are related to literacy development which are the following examples, Vocabulary, Syntactic production, Comprehension, Phonological awareness, and narrative production awareness Phonological : the child has the ability to spell the words correctly while writing. They also have the understanding of the letter sounds. Semantics: the child has an understanding of written and reading vocabulary.
5 strategies that a teaching assistant might use to support literacy development: 1.Improving language which means building children’s vocabulary. Vocabulary is very important. It is needed to communicate, to understand others and to express own ideas. Building and improving vocabulary will improve reading and writing skills. In order to improve children’s vocabulary teaching assistant could make sure to provide children with a language-rich environment.
In alphabetic languages such as English, individual spoken sounds are represented by individual letters or groups of letters. For reading and spelling, a young child should learn the complex rules by which these letters and sounds relate to each other. In languages with non-alphabetic orthography such as Chinese, There is no need to break words down into individual phonemes. Phonological impairments can cause greater difficulty in alphabetic languages than in logographic languages (Brunswick, 2009: 48). Several studies have shown that phonological awareness is essential in literacy and development of skills in reading and writing.
Aural means related to sense of hearing and oral related to verbal communication. Surely when the student is getting better in both listening and speaking they will reach communicative competence. Communicative competence refers to the level of language learning that enables language users to convey their message to others and to understand others’ messages within specific context (Hymes, 1972). Of course to reach this competence, both listening and speaking improvement is really needed. The Aural-Oral approach is very effective to be implemented in English Language Teaching in case to build communicative competence of student.
During the following essay I’ll define two pedagogical strategies to decode words and help adolescent students become better readers. Two pedagogical strategies I find to be significant for decoding words would be phonemic awareness and phonics. Phonemic awareness prefers to the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds-phonemes--in spoken words. I feel phonemic awareness is important because it’s the first strategy required for reading. As a child before you learn how to read you must first sound words out for example cat, dog, and map.
Dyslexia, as defined by the Yale Center for Dyslexia and Creativity (2017) is “due to a difficulty in a phonological processing which affects the ability of an individual to speak, read, spell and write.” It is often seen that students with Dyslexia typically do not read fluently. They tend to peruse at a slower pace and perusing for these students requires extreme exertion. Students who have Dyslexia struggle with memorizing, spelling, and understanding material. A student with Dyslexia may have trouble with decoding the order of letters, trouble with spelling and writing along with difficulty in listening and reading comprehension. Despite Dyslexia being a condition that is lifelong, it is important to realize that Dyslexia does not limit one’s level of intelligence.
The beneficiaries of this study are; Ministry of Education, teachers teaching English Second Language and learners. The Ministry will conduct in-service training workshops to help the teachers to acquire knowledge and skills. When the English teachers are well equipped on pronouncing English words, they will be in a position to help learners to improve on pronouncing English words. Learners will acquire the knowledge from teachers in English lessons and utilize the methods that will help them to improve their
Impact of Culture Culture is an important factor that affects one’s perception, it greatly influences one’s behavior and shapes their personality which can have a significant impact on one’s education and the curriculum. Stating the importance of culture must be assessed when teaching English Language Learners, ELLs. The challenges for many English Language Learners are not overcoming a language barrier but also achieving academically. Orosco and O’Connor state that “ELLs bring a wealth of cultural and linguistic knowledge into the classroom, but perhaps our schooling is a complex process that often separates students’ personal learning experiences from the classroom resulting in a challenge of acquiring the skills for reading instruction”.