It is believed that students are able to increase their listening, speaking, reading, and finally writing by learning new words. Vocabularies are considered to improve comprehension and production in the L2. It is also indicated that an important predictor of vocabulary acquisition patterns in children and adolescents (e.g. , Gathercole & Adams , 1993 , 1994 ; Gathercole , Service , Hitch , Adams , & Martin , 1999) and word learning in children and adults ( e.g. , Gathercole , Hitch , Service , & Martin , 1997) is PM capacity.
Introduction : Teaching requires more than having degree of education . Teachers should recognize student needs and getting the class involved in the learning process .That requires recognizing the new trends of teaching approaches . Language skills are a main component of the English language . Reading is a key for developing other language skills . Reading skills include skills acquired through reading, such as comprehension, fluency and independence.
According to Diamond & Gutlohn (2006), vocabulary is the knowledge of words and their meanings. One person will need the vocabulary in order to express or share their thoughts, opinions, feelings and others. This has shown the importance of having a strong vocabulary base in order to achieve comprehension and the use of a language. Carpenter & Olson (2011) also stated that vocabulary is an essential component in second language learning process because it is needed for expressing meaning and conveying thoughts through both receptive and productive skills. Besides, it is also important for children to be able to remember, recognize the words and understand the meaning of words while learning new vocabulary.
However, sensory and motor skills are dependent on cognitive development to give them meaning and direction. Sensory and motor development includes the abilities we normally acquire and develop from birth such as the abilities to: • see • hear • touch • grasp • walk Cognitive functions take sensory and motor skills to a higher level and can improve with training. These skills translate into the ability to: • reason and make intelligent decisions • concentrate on work • determine directionality • recognize patterns and logical next steps • understand and evaluate situations or problems • understand what is heard or read and derive
Therefore, it is of vital importance for parents to provide their children with phonological awareness at an early age by reading to them, teach them nursery rhymes, rhyme and play word games with them, as well as provide them with a print-rich environment. Phonological awareness is a critical skill that affects the child’s ability to learn to understand the structures of their native
Teaching requires more than having degree of education . Teachers should recognize student needs and getting the class involved in the learning process .That requires recognizing the new trends of teaching approaches . Language skills are a main component of the English language . Reading is a key for developing other language skills . Reading skills include skills acquired through reading, such as comprehension, fluency and independence.
The challenges in teaching creative writing as a second language to middle school children Writing is one of the languages skills that is very important to be mastered in learning English as a foreign language. According to (Sokolik, 2003). Writing is a combination of process and production, process refers to the steps and ideas we go through to produce it and production is the final piece of the writing according to (Zhang & Chen, 1989). Writing is a comprehension skill that incorporates grammar, vocabulary, conception and other parts of the language. By developing the writing skill it will help young learners have a bright future in their further studies.
1 Strategies of Reading40 Strategies can be defined as "deliberate actions that learners select and control to achieve desired goals or objectives" Winograd and hare (1988, p.123). This definition underscores the active role that readers take in strategies to achieve the desired result. "Effective language instructors show students how they can adjust their reading behavior to deal with a variety of situations, types of input, and reading purposes. They help students to develop a set of reading strategies and match appropriate strategies to each reading situation. When language learners use reading strategies, they find that they can control the reading experience, and they gain confidence in their ability to read the language.
The techniques and strategies use to improve these skills are similar to the reading sub-skills, which will be mentioned later. It is a well-known fact that reading helps students to acquire and expand their vocabulary, reinforce grammar and the way sentences, paragraphs and texts are constructed. In order to decide which
Aural means related to sense of hearing and oral related to verbal communication. Surely when the student is getting better in both listening and speaking they will reach communicative competence. Communicative competence refers to the level of language learning that enables language users to convey their message to others and to understand others’ messages within specific context (Hymes, 1972). Of course to reach this competence, both listening and speaking improvement is really needed. The Aural-Oral approach is very effective to be implemented in English Language Teaching in case to build communicative competence of student.