The Importance Of Public Diplomacy In The Cold War

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International relations scholars with traditional view define diplomacy as “the management of international relations by negotiation; the method by which these relations are adjusted by ambassadors and envoys; the business or art of the diplomatist” (Nicolson 1963, 4-5; Pigman 2010, 4-5). Diplomacy emphasizes the importance of soft power in international relations. In addition, State is seen as the only actor to carry on the duty of diplomacy under their diplomatic corps (Berridge 1994, 2010;Feilleux 2009; Jonsson 2005; Kurbalija 1999; Watson 1982; Pigman 2010; Sharp 2009; Melissen 2005, 2011, 2015; Gilboa 2008; Snow 2009; Gollan 2013; Merickova 2014).
However, non-state actor and media involvement during Cold War attracts attention from scholars and practitioners to the term of public diplomacy. Public diplomacy during the Cold War merely focuses on government activities to build direct communication with foreign people, which aims to affect their thinking and to influence their government. However, because of the revolution in mass communication, politics and international relations, especially after the 9/11 accident, expert introduce new public diplomacy term to discuss state and non-state activities to build direct communication with foreign public (Gilboa 2000, 2001, 2008; Melissen 2005,2011,2015; Snow 2009;Gollan 2013, Merickova 2014;Lee 2017).
Existing research in public diplomacy has several major weaknesses. Even though public diplomacy emerged long before cold
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