The Role Of Diplomacy In International Relations

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International relations scholars with traditional view define diplomacy as “the management of international relations by negotiation; the method by which these relations are adjusted by ambassadors and envoys; the business or art of the diplomatist” (Nicolson 1963, 4-5; Pigman 2010, 4-5). Diplomacy emphasizes the importance of soft power in international relations. In addition, State is seen as the only actor to carry on the duty of diplomacy under their diplomatic corps (Berridge 1994, 2010;Feilleux 2009; Jonsson 2005; Kurbalija 1999; Watson 1982; Pigman 2010; Sharp 2009; Melissen 2005, 2011, 2015; Gilboa 2008; Snow 2009; Gollan 2013; Merickova 2014).
However, non-state actor and media involvement during Cold War attracts attention from scholars
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He used five variables to distinguish among several models: major actors, initiators, goals, types of media, and means and techniques” (Gilboa 2008, 59). Basic Cold War Model explain state activities in influence and persuade foreign public to support its goals. The Non-State Transnational model investigate groups, NGOs, and individuals activities using public diplomacy across national boundaries. Meanwhile, the Domestic PR model study domestic PR or lobbyist activities in targeted country in order to achieve public diplomacy…show more content…
Among these activities, exchange programs are an interesting case. Because exchange program include the human factor while most forms of public diplomacy work concern on image and information presentation. Exchange engage with participant personality and psychology. Even though debates arise related to exchange effectiveness and role in international relations but the informal networks established from these relations have major political importance.
In educational exchange program, student role is important. "Student as "culture carrier" bridging the gap between home and host countries. The student functions as a culture carrier in two ways when they visit a foreign country: first, because they carry with them their home culture, which is acquired and internalized in the home country and passes it upon the host country during the exchange period; secondly, the student also experiences and learns about the host country 's culture, which will be passed in the home country" (Eide 1970, 170; Delima 2007,
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