Disorder has been conceptualised in urban studies as a way to challenge the idea of urban order, homogeneity and control. Richard Sennett (1970) discusses disorder in relation to urban communities and advocates for an anarchic, heterogeneous mixing up of various cultures, ethnicities and classes. For him, disorder can prove useful in challenging urban inequalities, racial discrimination, and
In analysing the practices that surround dancehall, it could be accurately said that they reflect that of a subculture. Subcultures theoretically speak to …. Functionally, as an avenue for inner city populous to express themselves, coupled with its social deviant nature, dancehall is a subcultural space. WHAT IS DANCEHALL???? In understanding dancehall as a subcultural state, one must grasp a full concept of what subcultures entail and how they function within a wider society.
I felt that some of it was reductive and attempted to draw clear distinctions between the worldviews of the rich and the poor. I will focus instead on his discussion of gangs, which elucidates both the repercussions of state policies on the lives of the urban poor as well as the possible policy implications of an ethnographic study. Instead of viewing gangs as disrupting the functioning of poor neighbourhoods (as is assumed by criminologists), Sanchez-Jankowski stresses on the fact that they are recognized as legitimate in the neighbourhood and contribute to its social structure; thus rendering the fact that they are considered illegitimate in the eyes of the larger society irrelevant. His questions remain: how and when do gangs negatively affect low-income neighbourhoods and when do they help maintain the social fabric of poor neighbourhoods? In social disorganisation theory, there is an attempt to locate the gang as ‘external’ or the ‘other’ which is undesirable and must be eliminated.
Introduction to make sense of a city when walking along any of its streets, thinking about the complexity of what we see before our eyes and wondering about that which lies behind the facades of the buildings and beyond the bend of the street. To read and interpret the tangle of overlapping and intertwined stories that this collection of people, objects and events offers. the change in urban scene, constant transformation of this landscape, or rather cityscape, around us, a mutation that we have come to associate with livelihood without movement and change. To understand urban design we will need to understand the urban space and the processes that produce it. there is a degree of ambiguity and uncertainty about the nature and scope of urban
A case of Birzeit town has been taken to study whether Birzeit stands for human health within its urban fabric or not? Chapter 2: Theoretical Background Urban areas may be defined as a characteristic of place rather than of people, and based on that; people living in urban areas are called urbanized people. "Urban is a place-based characteristic that incorporates elements of population density, social and economic organization, and the transformation of the natural environment into a built environment.” (Weeks, 2008, P.34). And “The ‘densely settled
Also it has defined as a place of social life flow and because of social and historical events it will stick in people’s memory. These spaces are the places where most of the action among people takes place in them and are port of the city that the population have physical and visual access to them (Tibbalds 1992). So in order to facilitate social interaction a space need to have some characteristics. For example: • It need to have social life in • Having a platform for activities and events • It should be Sociabile • It needs A place for exchanging ideas and information • People need to have visual and physical access to them • It should be Life dependent to people • And Caused by image or social memories Now some different kind of public open space which is fertile for interactions
So, there is difference in usage of the inside space and the outside space, the transition zone becomes a representation of coexistence and co-dependence of internal and external areas. The frontage of the individual or dwellers building creates a barrier or obstruction for sight into the dwellers private space and also acts as a character to the streetscape. However individual or the dweller impose a right to view the streetscape and exerting the influence over the common space. The street has wide range of characters which enhance the beauty of the street. The landscape elements have influenced to have a good image of the space.
Humans are social beings, who are said to have produced their own lives, own consciousness and their own world since the beginning of time. Everything in history or in society needed to be produced. Even ‘nature’ itself has been altered and in a sense also produced. (Lefebvre 1991, 68) The same goes for cities; Cities are mankind’s social construction, which serve as drivers for modern-day capitalism. The social production of cities or urban spaces is a necessity to the reproduction of society, in other words, a necessity for the reproduction of capitalism.
It was named the third way approach, it considered the fundamentals of neo-liberalism however it also placed emphasis on community building, participation, inclusion, poverty alleviation and integration (Mohamed, 2009). In theory South Africa has adopted the third way approach to urban governance. However in reality cities favour techno-centric style that disregards public participation and focuses on efficiency and integration (Mohamed, 2009). Harrison (2006) has critiqued the third way approach, his critiques include: the contradicting collaborative governance and performance management, failure to achieve political and socio-economic inclusion of the urban poor. Buccus et al.
space) and ‘social’ (i.e. activity) dimensions. The activities and events that happen within urban spaces can render socio cultural public space (Carmona, 2010, 137). For Montgomery (1998), reached the public space in city different functions meeting places by providing, defining spaces for local traditions and identifying of meaning and identity (Montgomery, 1998: 110). Public places providing