1. Define Disciplinary Literacy (DL): Disciplinary Literacy is learning how to read, think about, write, communicate, and use information like each discipline’s expert. It involves the tasks and processes of reading, thinking, inquiring, and speaking, required to learn and develop discipline-appropriate content knowledge. 2. Define Content Area Literacy (CL): Content Area literacy is the ability to use reading and writing for the acquisition of new content in a given discipline.
Wholist style tends to respond to cognitive task by holistic strategy. They are used to perceiving material from the holistic perspective. There is a long span in reading comprehension. According to research, English majors in the vocabulary learning, guess words in context. The reading material provides them with information to help them guess the meaning.
This chapter describes the rationale, purpose of the study, research questions, scope and delimitations, and definition of terms of the study. 1.1 Rationale Reading is one of the most important parts in learning English. It helps students gain new experience and knowledge and engage to other societies if they are able to understand texts they are reading. However, there is a difficulty in learning language that is grammar. It is the most difficult part to comprehend texts and meaning especially a complex sentence.
Reading involves garnering knowledge, information and meaning from any literary text. Readers are encouraged to be active in constructing meaning while reading text. Thus, after reading has taken place, readers should have a clear understanding of what has been written and they will then be able to transfer information they need. However, many students still have challenges with comprehension; especially when they have to comprehend words, sentences or an entire text. If people do not understand what they read, it becomes a frustrating, pointless exercise in word calling.
Reading comprehension schema is often used to assist second language learning. According to Anderson (2008), a reader comprehends a message by activating schema that gives a good account of the objects and events described in the message. It requires reading numerous texts in the particular language. If we fail to create schema while reading the text it will ultimately hamper comprehension
It encourages a higher level of thinking compared to the basal level of instruction for students, predicts events and reacts to characters in stories. It gives learners the opportunity to think deeply and share their thoughts about a story. Reading-based instructions enhance vocabulary, improve reading comprehension, and language growth. However, there are several disadvantages of using authentic reading materials such as difficulty in finding a variety of books suited to every learner in a diverse classroom, wherein learners varying levels of vocabulary and comprehension abilities are considered. Moreover, it gives additional work for the teacher to look for stories relevant to students’ lives.
The socio-cultural perspective of SLA asserts that language development is based on input coming from the environment and More Knowledgeable Others (MKOs). It is through these interactions that learners get exposed to the target language and develop vocabulary that will be employed when speaking, writing, listening, viewing, and lastly, reading. If the learner does not have enough interaction using the target language and if the environment does not provide sufficient English language input for learning, language proficiency would be affected. It can be said, then, that those who have not been exposed sufficiently to the second language as much will have weak vocabulary and will have a hard time comprehending what is being read and given. This will certainly affect academic performance especially that ESL classrooms nowadays tend to be constructivist in nature.
This is one strategy of developing sensitivity into oral language, considering individual sounds and single words. Phonemic awareness is in a nutshell, the ability to notice, think about and work with individual sounds in a spoken word. (Fitzsimmons, 1998) Phonemic awareness is a process of assisting a learner to develop reading skills, being able to note words in a sentence. This strategy to learning develops over time and can be taught in different ways. This is also the ability to hear, identify and use individual sounds when speaking or writing.
The third is Read-aloud and discussion are effective ways to engage in mastery modeling. Read-aloud allows teachers to model important reading strategies and behaviors. According to McGee & Richgels (2003), teacher read alouds can be used to promote deeper understanding and interpretation of text; allow children to take an active role in understanding text; and prompt children to begin using mental activities that will become automatic as they begin reading independently. The fourth is Providing balanced book
That is why there are some cases where pupils are not able to retain meaning as they were given with complex passages. Again in this article, Lenz has stated that reading comprehension is important for pupils to learn as it helps the reader in comprehending text and convey meaning through there. However, it depends to how the person read and gain meaning from the passage. It can also be through various strategies in understanding