Background knowledge on ESL/EFL Vocabulary Learning Vocabulary acquisition is an essential process for ESL learners to develop proficiency and competence in target language. Vocabulary power enables effective writing and fluent speaking. It demonstrates both: students’ knowledge acquisition and knowledge production. It improves students’ incorporated language skills such as speaking, listening, writing and reading. Among the early researches of vocabulary learning in the first language (e.g., Boettcher, 1980; Carey, 1982; Clark, 1973; Dale, O' Rourke, & Bamman, 1971; Deighton, 1959; Eichholz & Barbe, 1961; Gentner, 1975), the research by Nagy et al.
This chapter describes the rationale, purpose of the study, research questions, scope and delimitations, and definition of terms of the study. 1.1 Rationale Reading is one of the most important parts in learning English. It helps students gain new experience and knowledge and engage to other societies if they are able to understand texts they are reading. However, there is a difficulty in learning language that is grammar. It is the most difficult part to comprehend texts and meaning especially a complex sentence.
2.2. Models of Reading (4the relation)p9 There are three major theoretical perspectives of reading that are usually discussed in the literature of second language reading (L2). The bottom-up model focuses on linguistic elements and decoding the information presented in the text. The top-down model emphasizes the overall comprehension of the text. The interactive model and schema theory aim to complete the gap between these two models, integrate them and provide a better explanation for the reading process.
The third is Read-aloud and discussion are effective ways to engage in mastery modeling. Read-aloud allows teachers to model important reading strategies and behaviors. According to McGee & Richgels (2003), teacher read alouds can be used to promote deeper understanding and interpretation of text; allow children to take an active role in understanding text; and prompt children to begin using mental activities that will become automatic as they begin reading independently. The fourth is Providing balanced book
Reading aloud has many advantages in learning. Those are; first can improve in reading comprehension. The teacher can use reading aloud to improve student’s background knowledge and their skill in reading (Meller, Richardson, & Hatch, 2009). It is based on investigation that conduct by Santos (1987) in Amer (1997) reading aloud has positive effect for learners particularly ability to inter- relate, interpret, and conclusion of draw from content of passage. Besides the teacher can guide learners in learning second or foreign language (Güler, 2013).
Zarei and Rahimi (2012) conclude that second language learners have main trouble in learning idiomatic expressions. In addition, Zarei and Rahimi(2012) believe however, second language learners as a fluent speaker should learn how to use idiomatic expressions, but a large amount of research is on idioms understanding, So another matter which learners are encountered with is the production of idiomatic
Reading Comprehension: Impact of Brainstorming Introduction Of all language skills, reading is the most necessary for independent learning. Through reading, students can gain access of further knowledge, both about the language and about other subjects. It should be emphasized that reading comprehension is a problem that most learners of English as second language (ESL) face, because of the many variables that affect reading comprehension activities .So, some studies were conducted on readability. Venkateswarm (1995) sees readability "as a term that refers to text types of styles of writing that people find attractive and hence easier to read than other kinds of writing.” It’s believed that text complexity is behind low reading comprehension.
This means that rapid reading should be started at the beginning of the middle stage, not before that. b. They must have formed the habit of reading and study. c. They must have developed the ability to recognize words faster than to pronounce them. Steps in Extensive Reading: 1) Introductory talk by the teacher: • Give hints as to the points of the story • Deal with specific language difficulties 2) Silent reading by the pupils 3) Questions by the teacher 4) Recapitulation Advantages of Extensive reading: • It helps in assimilation of ideas.
Reading comprehension schema is often used to assist second language learning. According to Anderson (2008), a reader comprehends a message by activating schema that gives a good account of the objects and events described in the message. It requires reading numerous texts in the particular language. If we fail to create schema while reading the text it will ultimately hamper comprehension
Not only by exposing them to the language they will speak, read and write the English language correctly, students must learn and understand the meaning of words. Vocabulary words help any English language learner communicate effectively with any other person. According to Wilkins (1972), “Vocabulary is central to English language teaching because, without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas.” On the other hand, many teachers recognize the importance of teaching vocabulary and they must emphasize it daily in their lessons. Among many skills, vocabulary in context is one of the most commonly used. To aid vocabulary in context, the use of a Card-file among other strategies may enrich the student’s experience and understanding of what they speak, read, and