Classroom administration is the procedure by which educators and schools make and keep up suitable conduct of understudies in classroom settings. At the point when classroom-administration systems are executed successfully, instructors minimize the practices that obstruct learning for both individual understudies and gatherings of understudies, while expanding the practices that encourage or improve learning. Classroom administration is truly hard and numerous scholars discuss it and each is not quite the same as the other where every scholar has his/her own thoughts and considerations. Some of them are specified beneath. In Redl and Wattenberg 's theories, they incorporate gathering flow, poise, the delight torment guideline, and comprehension
According to Patterson, Collins and Abbott (2004), resilient teachers consider their professional development as a priority. These teachers seem to prefer an active approach to resolve problems. Moreover, Howard and Johnson (2004) highlighted that some teachers involved in their study admitted that they had developed survival skills by reflecting on their practice when things were going wrong. Teachers who participated in Huisman et al’s study (2010) also considered both formal and informal professional development opportunities as a priority. As mentioned earlier in this paper, societal developments in several domains confront schools and teachers nowadays with more challenges of different kinds (Elchardus, 1994; Hargreaves, 1994b).
And novice teacher can be a part of the whole procedure. It will give several types of experience to mold the carrier. Problem Based Learning Problem Based Learning (PBL) is an instructional method in which students learn through solving problems and reflecting on their experiences (Barrows & Tamblyn, 1980). Savery (2015) asserts that it is an instructional learner-centered approach that empowers learners to integrate theory and practice and apply knowledge and skills to develop a viable solution to a defined problem. The kinds of problems pre-service teachers face during their professional experience are mostly ill-structured problems that they encounter in their everyday work and are thus highly emergent, complex and interdisciplinary in nature (Jonassen, 2011).
This sub-section tried to review the nature of curriculum, its implementation, and then the effect on student teachers reflective learning practices. Reflective teacher education naturally follows the innovative and reflective paradigm of teacher education, which is theorized and grounded from the cognitive and constructive learning theories and principles (Huizen, et al). Therefore, it gives more attention in enhancing student teachers’ self learning, rather than receiving information as it is (Choy, 2012; Daudelin, 1996) from sources that they assumed as authoritative by practicing reflection over the theoretical and practical experiences while teacher education curricula are delivered. Such intentions at the teacher education are best served
The accompanying is a delineation of each approach, close by a couple points of interest and burdens. Teacher centered preparing In teacher centered preparing, understudies put most of their consideration on the educator. The teacher talks, while the understudies exclusively tune in. In the midst of activities, understudies work alone, and joint exertion is incapacitated. Pros Right when preparing is instructor centered, the classroom remains proficient.
It provides the most effective learning condition which is the gap between what the learners can and cannot do without help in the ZPD. When planning the scaffold, a teacher should consider the designed-in scaffold, where the teacher has to plan before a teacher and the interactional contingent which is the situation in the classroom context. The teacher can provide the scaffold to learners during listening and speaking class to help the learners to decode and meaning build the sound they heard. A teacher who is not able to provide suitable scaffolding in the classroom is not able to motivate the learners to learn because the lesson may be either too simple or too difficult for the learners to learn. In conclusion, a “good” language teacher should be able to plan, select and sequence the activities to provide the suitable challenge and scaffold for learners to learn
Even if teachers are influential on students’ learning and achievement, they can maximize this influence only when they are supported by the institution and system leaders (Reeves, 2010). This is because they are part of the complex institutional system which extends from their own classrooms to institutional level, and even to the society at large, that directly or indirectly influences their teaching. Hence, they need an intuitional climate which provides them with support, encouragement, guidance, and direction in their teaching (SCEP, 2000). They need an intuitional climate wherein collaboration among teachers, teachers and their students, and teachers and administrators exists as effective teaching demands working in a shared environment (Kahn & Walsh, 2006). The idea is that as conditions in classrooms affect students’ learning opportunities, institutional climate affects, positively or negatively, teachers’ teaching and professional learning (Day & Sachs,
Accordingly, the effect of teachers’ beliefs and perceptions on their teaching and practices have been extensively investigated and studied from different perspectives under a bigger umbrella term “teacher cognition” (Borg, 2003; p. 81). To consider some related works, Phipps and Borg (2007) concluded that the cognition developed by the novice teachers may be resistant to change and exert a persistent long-term influence on teachers’ instructional practices which is in line with Pajares’ assertion (1992), that "beliefs are formed early and tend to self-perpetuate" (p. 324). In addition, the influence of previous experience on teachers’ behavior (Richardson, 1996); teachers’ beliefs about teaching on their pedagogical decisions (Johnson, 1994), and practice on beliefs (Richardson, 1996) have been studied which indicate a direct connection between their cognition and action that is conducive to likewise performance. This connection implies the necessity of congruency between beliefs, experience and action which are in constant interaction with each other (Freeman & Richardson, 1996). However, if this connection is distorted by any means, it may give rise to frustration and negative feelings in teacher education courses (Galman, 2009), and even tensions in classroom practices
Moreover, he also pushed the notion further to the emotional aspect and considered EFL teacher as friend, confidante, and parent. Scrivener (2002, P. 6) broadly grouped teachers into three types: the explainer, the involver and the enabler. He also puts forward the teacher’s role as “learner”, which suggests that teacher should keep on learning about language, about methodology, about people, about themselves and about life. Gu (1998) elaborated teacher as controller of everything that went on in the classroom, as manager who organized the activities, as assessor who gave feedback, advice, correction and grading, as participant (co-communicator) in organized activities such as debates and role plays. He also claimed that teacher should act as prompter who encouraged students to participate or made suggestions on how to proceed in an activity, as resource who provided students language and knowledge, and as instructor who taught the new language points and helped students develop their language
Review of Related Literatures Student-Teacher Relationships With this basic understanding of the apparent necessity and importance of relationships in mind, the following section will focus more specifically on the importance and impact of student-teacher relationships. A request for what constitutes effective teaching will be after undoubtedly a long and varied list of responses. The list may include, but not be limited to a teacher’s knowledge of subject, pedagogical competence, instructional effectiveness, and/or classroom management skills. Banner and Cannon (1997) describe the difficulty in defining exactly what it means to be an effective teacher, “We think we know great teaching when we encounter it, yet we find it impossible to say precisely what has gone into making it great.” As stated by McEwan (2002), “An ample amount of research exists showing that content and caring are not exclusive commodities; effective teachers emphasize both...” Teacher connections One of the attributes that will undoubtedly make most lists is a teacher’s ability to connect with students. It may be referred to as an ability to cultivate relationships or be more formally labeled as “nurturing pedagogy.” It may be defined as a mix of high expectations and caring support; or as Pianta (1999) defines the student-teacher relationship, “Emotions-based experiences that emerge out of teachers’ on-going interactions with their students.” Strahan and Layell (2006) noted the importance of