Reflective practice are methods and techniques that help individuals and groups reflect on their experiences and actions in order to engage in a process of continuous learning. By trying out methods of reflection and personal inquiry we can nurture greater self-awareness, imagination and creativity, as well as systemic, non-linear modes of thinking and analysis. Reflective Practice is a very adaptable process. It is a set of ideas that can be used alongside many other concepts for training, learning, personal development, and self-improvement. We can use Reflective Practice for our own development and/or to help others to develop.
According to Schon, reflective practitioners reflect both “in” and “on” action. These concept of reflection-in and on-action are based on a view of knowledge and an understanding of theory and practice that are very different from the traditional ones that have dominated educational discourse, because in the traditional view of technical rationality, there is a separation between theory and practice that must somehow be overcome. Self – consciousness Is an acute sense of self-awareness. It is a preoccupation with oneself, as opposed to the philosophical state of self-awareness, which is the awareness that one exists as an individual being; although some writers use both terms interchangeably or
Reflective Learning Owen (2011) Boyd (1983) define reflective learning as a cognitive process that involves analyzing a past or present experience, which create new meaning and insight about the experience and result in changed in conceptual perspective. The focus of reflective learning is to understand the experiential learning process. According to Kolb’s (1984) reflective model, reflection is a crucial element that initiates transformation within the learning process. Without reflection, an individual would not learn from their experience, they will continue in an endless cycle of experiences with the same emotion, behavior and practice. On the contrary, if an individual reflects on their experience and adopt the new meaning, there will
This branch criticizes if whether what the adult learner is learning is applicable to their daily routines and whether it will benefit them in the future. Thirdly, Ethics, the study of what is regarded as good or bad, righteous or wicked. Ethics is part of our everyday life. Adult learners often learn how to tackle different situations and how they should behave or conduct themselves towards that situation. Forthly, Logic, the science of reasoning, forms of thinking and judgments.
The behaviour we observed is models. In social life, children encompassed with effective people like parents, siblings, friends, tv characters and teachers etc. They attract to certain people and encode the behaviour and later imitate the behaviour interest to them regardless whether it is appropriate or inappropriate for them. MEDITATIONAL PROCESS: it is referred as a bridge between traditional learning theory and cognitive approach. Bandura believes that individuals are effective "informative processors" and always anticipate the connection between their behaviour and its outcome and such factor involved in the learning process to evaluate if the new response is accomplished.
It is very important that writers are able to send a message to their reader with their book. Authors best do this by bringing about empathy. In order to send this message, authors often develop strong characters that go through various problems and struggles. The book, To Kill a Mockingbird, shows this very well with its characters Scout Finch and Tom Robinson. This book helps the readers learn from the character’s reactions to their problems.
They also learn from their past experiences that forms as a knowledge base from which they draw learning concepts (Sommers 1989). They require reinforcement to be a part of the learning process so as to correct mistakes in their performance. Hanson (1996) argued that the difference in learning is related to individual characteristics and differs in context, culture and power but not related to the age and stage of one's life. Future of Andragogy Malcom Knowles pioneered the adult learning theory but much more can be looked upon based on the various factors that affect it. Keeping Knowles theory of andragogy in mind, further studies can be done to go beyond his version and include broader perspectives in the field.
The model, which is an updated version with more detailed extensions of self-regulated learning components, includes two broad areas which are motivation and learning strategies. The motivation construct fits into the concept of precaution phase in the self-regulation cycle established by Zimmerman (1998) , in which precaution phase indicates the influential processes and beliefs, such as task analysis and self-motivational beliefs, before efforts are put into learning stage. Expectancy refers to students ' belief in the finishing point of a task, and includes two subcomponents, student view of self-efficacy and control belief for learning. Value, showing the reason for a student to involve in a task, is measured based on three subscales such are intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation, and task value beliefs. Furthermore extrinsic goals are about one 's engagement in a task due to outside rewards or benefits, such as grades or approval from others.
Facilitators can help provide a supportive environment to assist in the process. The facilitator has a role to play in pre and post experience. Learners need to be prepared if they have to make most of their experience. According to Boud and Walker (1999:29) a facilitator can assist learners by introducing them to the context, and help them develop skills and strategies prior to the event. Merriam et al (2007:169) describes the various roles of the facilitator during reflection on action to include (i) encouraging learners to reflect and discuss openly ion the experience, (ii) bringing to light underlying assumptions for reflection, (iii) assessor of learner’s prior experiential learning.
According to Went & Turner, 2014, there are also different traditions and contexts in communication where it helps us to break down difficulty when we attempt to understand communication theory and their process. Many people have doubt the purpose of studying communication theory. What do we actually learn from communication theory? According to International Association of Communication Activists (IACACT) (n.d.), one of the importance of understanding communication theory is to cultivate critical thinking skills. Critical thinking skills are important as it shows the perspectives of our thinking and knowledge we have.
Why is the strategy appropriate for ELL instruction? Explain how instructional activities will be differentiated. This strategy is appropriate for ELL instruction because an anticipation guide can be completed orally. Students can express their thoughts about a story by speaking to a partner or to a teacher. The number of statements to be answered can also be modified and simple statements can be made to encourage student ideas without being too overwhelming.
Then the third assumption follows closely on new content and can be presented through learning tasks (Vella pp 2-5). In the assumption of learning theory we are making assumptions about learning from different perspectives. From an educator’s perspective, we have made assumptions about the needs and readiness of learners, and assumed that there are best teaching and learning strategies for particular learners under particular learning context. Experiments and research have been conducted to validate the findings. From a learner’s perspective, the learners have assumed that they would be able to achieve the learning goals based on certain learning strategies, that suit their particular learning styles, and under