This will ensure construct, external and internal validity and reliability. Comprehensive and systematic organisation of data by means of a database is of utmost importance to strengthen the study. 4.4 DATA ANALYSIS METHOD Because case studies tend to be exploratory, most end with implications for further study. The researcher may be able to identify significant variables that emerged during the research and suggest studies related to these. Yin (2003a) maintains that data analysis consists of "examining, categorizing, tabulating, testing, or otherwise recombining both quantitative and qualitative evidence to address the initial propositions of a study" According to Yin there are the following analytic strategies for case studies: 1.
These assumptions are said to determine how the researcher understands the research questions, the methods to be used and also how findings will be interpreted. According to Saunders et al. (2016:124), a well-structured and consistent set of assumptions will constitute a credible research philosophy which will support the choice of methodology, research strategy and data collection techniques and analysis procedures. Such a research philosophy will also permit the researcher to design a coherent project where all aspects fit together. The two most common types of research philosophies are positivism and
First, using previous research as well as the instinct of the researcher, one use theory to predict relationships among or differences between selected variables. This variables selection process and the theoretical explanation of how they are related is referred to as isolating a particular research problem where the researcher then identify appropriate hypotheses to be tested completes the isolation process. Second, research design selection follows once the appropriate variables relevant to the applicable theory had been identified. As mentioned above, there are two general design options: experimental designs and survey designs in quantitative communication research. Experimental designs are typically best suited for making causal claims and describing differences between groups while survey designs are best suited for describing characteristics of groups and explaining relationships between variables (i.e., correlations).
2 Perhaps the most important aspect of scientific research is its provability. A scientific research should be repeatable, and to be repeatable, it has to fulfill various aspects, such as having “empirical, focused questions, a careful record-keeping , and an accurate and honest reports of the findings.”(Bouma&Atkinson, 1996) The research question has to limit its scope by mentioning the details. Listing the factors and conditions which have to do with the matter at hand helps focus the question and convey the exact context of the research to the reader. When the factors are listed, it can ben seen which facts have been looked into, and being facts, they can be looked into again by anyone. This is the characteristic of what we call “facts”.
“All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to innovation or invention” -Hudson Maxim This section aims to explore the methodological tools and techniques that are implemented in the research project for fulfilling the aims and objectives. The section explores various subs –sections such as philosophical posture of the study, approach to the research, research strategy and methods to deduce the arguments with substantiated evidence. There has been paramount importance given to this chapter. The importance of research design and methodology has been also been noted by (Kothari, 2006).
A problem statement is an issue that needs to be addressed, it provides the context of the study and it generates the questions which the research aims to answer and is instrumental in framing the context of the research as well as what is to be attained by pursuing the opportunity or bridging the gap in the current subject matter body of knowledge. The research problem also gives insight to those using the knowledge in the future as to the scope of the research and any limitations that would affect the outcomes of the study. Is the research problem the same as the problem statement? No they are not – the research problem is the broad area that is being investigated by the particular study while the problem is a specific statement, or articulation of what would be investigated, under what conditions as well as the outcomes and proposed next
Methodology clarifies the research inquiry and why the inquiry is imperative. It clarifies the beginning stage of the research, the bearings of the research and the conceivable ramifications of the research when it is finished. Methodology clarifies the writing the researcher is utilizing, the dialect and phrasing, alternate hypotheses and clarifications being utilized, the routines and the kind of examination that will be utilized to decipher the information and data gathered. The methodology gives an avocation for the methodology a researcher takes and exhibits that the researcher is not simply doing things on the grounds that it is helpful, modest, or they simply would prefer not to do whatever else might be available. Case in point, the methodology will clarify the explanations behind conversing with individual’s vis-à-vis or in gatherings or not conversing with individuals whatsoever, the explanations behind selecting some individuals and not all individuals, the explanations behind conversing with individuals instead of social affair the information from unacknowledged reviews or bad habit verse.
Appendix 1 METHODOLOGY Introduction Methodology refers to the underlying principle behind a research work. It is related but different from method, which, strictly speaking, refers to the actual tools used in research. Methodology is about the process and reasoning behind the use of the tools. It is an important part of the research process, because it forms the bridge between theory and fieldwork. In this chapter, I describe my methodology.
A research methodology addresses the subjects of research design, sources of data, technique for collecting the data, and data analysis. This study will employ interpretivism and positivism as research paradigms. This is because both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used for the interviews, questionnaires, and observation in gathering and analysing the data that were collected. According to Creswell (2014) quantitative and qualitative approaches are the two basic paradigms of research. Both these methods are essential to the research process but Connaway and Powell (2010:117) point out that they require some common and some different skills.
4 Research Methodology 4.1 Research objectives/goals/questions Research comprises of defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organising and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis (Clifford Woody cited in Kothari, 2004) Kothari (2004) defines methodology as ‘a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically’ while Somekh and Lewin (2005) define methodology as both ‘the collection of methods or rules by which a particular piece of research is undertaken’ and the ‘principles, theories