Grant-Davie describes thoroughly the term rhetorical situation and how the development of the definition and its constituents has contributed to the discovery of the motives and responses behind any discourse. The analysis of rhetorical situations could determine the outer or inner influences of the rhetors, the audience, and their particular constraints.
Grant-Davie considered audiences those with whom rhetors negotiate with discourse to achieve the objective. Discourse can have primary and secondary audiences. He discussed Douglas Park’s definition of audience that includes those who hear or read a discourse, those who are a part of an external rhetorical situation, those who the writer thinks of, and the audience suggested by the discourse. Grant-Davie says that reading and writing can be a negotiation between the readers and writers.
My definition of rhetoric before the readings was simply: successful written or oral communication with a clear purpose & audience in mind. After completing the readings, I have decided that is not specific enough and does not encompass what rhetoric really is. The readings by Crusus, Channell, and Drucker helped establish a clear relationship between argument, “mature reasoning”, and communication as a mode used to communicate. Both of the readings provided a clearer understanding of argument and communication, key components to rhetoric, but did not change my definition until I read “The Rhetorical Situation” by Bitzer. The idea of a rhetorical situation, provided a clear application of the question: “What is rhetoric?” in a historical, realistic
Rhetorical appeals reveal the hidden message the character is trying to convey. The rhetoric also highlights the character’s emotions, feelings and the significance of the text. It allows readers to gain a better understanding of the characters. Arthur Miler, the author of The Crucible, highlights the importance of mass hysteria through rhetorical appeals. John Proctor, the tragic hero is a loyal, honest, and kind-hearted individual. Proctor utilizes strong rhetorical appeals to highlight his emotions and his speaking style. Proctor values his reputation and name. Proctor was trying to end Abigail because she was falsely accusing other innocent people of witchcraft. The famous play, The Crucible by Arthur Miller explores Proctors speaking style
Rhetorical strategies are a variety of parts that make up an essay. The strategies include everything from explaining a process, to structure of writing. Whether the author 's purpose is to entertain, inform, or persuade, ultimately these strategies will strengthen not only the author’s purpose, but also the writing itsef. Typically when authors use these strategies, they are very precise to how they use them, and when deeply analysing a piece of writing, this is very clear. In Bell Hooks’ “Understanding Patriarchy”, she used rhetorical strategies to convey her purpose. Bell Hooks, is Gloria Jean’s pen name. Bell Hooks is an American author, socialist, and feminist. Her rhetorical purposes, are to inform and persuade. In her essay she is informing her audience about patriarchy.The definition of patriarchy is “a system of society or government in which the father or eldest male is head of the family and descent is traced through the male line” (Dictionary). Hooks explains everything about patriarchy, she explains a religious perspective, a feminist perspective, and even a personal experience with patriarchy. To strengthen this, hook uses numerous rhetorical strategies. Hooks’ use of structure, tone, personal experience, logos, and variety of perspectives, support her purpose and strengthen her essay.
Speeches are used to commemorate points of history, and inform the general public of the product of their history but what makes a speech so impacting on it’s audience? Rhetorical devices give speeches and works of literature a way that can convey feelings or ideas to a viewer. When addressing during times of war or chaos, people such as Ronald Reagan, Abraham Lincoln, and Winston Churchill used these terms to better connect with their audience. Without these tools of the english language, dialogue and literature would be all the more dull and unappealing. However, with these useful instruments, writers and speakers can better communicate through some of the many rhetorical devices.
Tragedies, they will happen without a hint of awareness but they cannot be stopped or answered for. When they do occur it leads people to shock and grief. However tragedies brings forth something that gives people unity, hope, and direction. This something is called a leader and throughout history many people have embodied this quality. There are many instances where people have stood up an embodied this quality. For instance G.W. Busch during 9-11 and Abraham Lincoln with the Gettysburg Address. These two occasions might be different in many ways but they share a person rising to an opportunity to provide inspirational words for the people. Specifically, we can look at Ronald Reagan and how he rises to an occasion and unifies people while providing direction in a speech about the tragic “Challenger” event.
In 1962 President John F. Kennedy held a press conference in which he informed the audience on his stance for the rising steel prices. Kennedy not only wanted to inform the audience, he wanted to get them on his side of the argument. He wanted to show the audience that the rising steel prices were going to have a negative impact on the nation. To do this Kennedy used some of the rhetoric strategies and tools. He used periodic sentences, anaphora, and diction. By using these strategies Kennedy was able to put emphasis in his speech. He effectively showed the audience Hayes viewpoint on the rising steel prices through his word choice.
How powerful is a single story? At Ted Global 2009, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, a Nigerian novelist, expresses her view of single stories and the ways in which they are used to create stereotypes and divides us as a people. Adichie’s talk, “The Danger of a Single Story”, stimulates careful consideration to what happens when people and situations are reduced to a single narrative. She believes single stories are highly correlated with the power structures of the world and have the ability to strip people of their humanity. In my rhetorical analysis essay, I will detail how Adichie’s talk is effective in persuading her audience because of the Cause & Effect Analysis, Exemplification, and Metadiscourse rhetorical strategies.
Now, the framework I decided to use for this article through analyzing is Lloyd Bitzer’s Rhetorical Situation. In his rhetorical situation, he explains how every situation can be analyzed rhetorically by looking at the interactions between speakers, subjects, audience and purpose. A rhetoric piece of work comes into existence for the sake of something far greater than the piece itself. In each rhetoric situation, he explains how there’s three main variables that come into play. First, you gave the exigence, which is the “reason.” The exigence is an obstacle waiting to be done and is the only thing can be modified. Second, you have the audience. The rhetorical audience consists of only the persons who can be influenced by the exchange or discourse.
In the early days preceding the first fireside chat on 12, March 1933, the American people’s confidence in the banking system was at an all-time low. As the confidence in the banking system began to erode, people began to make runs and withdrawing all their money leaving the banks empty and foreclosing many of the smaller rural banks. Banks continued to close despite the government's best efforts, as a result, President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s (FDR) instituted the banking holiday on 6 March 1933: closing all the banks preventing people from withdrawing all their assets, foreclosing, even more, banks and making the situation worse. When the banks closed FDR started to initiate a plan to inform the American people about how the banks worked, what they do with the money, and how he and the government are going to solve the issue.
Thesis: In his speech, Obama establishes a rhetorical situation with his of exigence, audience, purpose, and different rhetorical appeals and devices.
The audience is anyone who is listening to the discourse or who a writer seems to have in mind (Rhetorical situations and their constituents). This may affect what you say or how you say it. If you are having a discourse with your buddies you may be loud and use vulgar language; however, if you are in a room with professionals you will speak in a polite manner and with a professional tone. Constraints are another complicated aspect of a discourse just as the exigence. Constraints are “limitations on the rhetor” these can be either positive or negative (Rhetorical situations and their constituents). The author can use constraints to gain the upper hand in an argument though sympathy. Such as if I wanted to get a car and my mom said no, I could say “buuuuut mom I have been doing all my chores and haven’t asked for anything recently”. Although this would most likely not work it may sway her opinion. If you choose to bring up constraints that benefit you have a good chance at winning an argument.
Have you ever watched "the Red Hearts" commercial? This is a commercial produced by Ben Lifson on November 24th 2013 that tries to convince people to purchase some form of health insurance. In the commercial, we watch people living as normal circumstances, and accidents might happen and do happen unexpectedly. Then, by using rhetorical situation, the commercial explains why people need to be insured to protect themselves and the people around them by using emotional functions effectively. According to his essay, Grant-Davie explains that the rhetoric situation is a discourse of a single subject by "several rhetors and audiences" (Grant-Davie 350). Rhetorical situations are also divided into three elements: rhetors, audiences, and constraints.
Briefcases: Steps toward Rhetorical Analysis”, Carroll describes the need for rhetorical analysis to assist in decoding the purpose and intent behind a cornucopia of the situation we faced daily. She elucidates the subject by describing the steps that we need to effectively to do it. She points out how we analyze people around us by making quickly a conclusion to the person that we are analyzing.