Research Paper On Sea Urchins

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Introduction
After the two major revolutions: Green revolution and Industrial revolution, the climate in different regions of the world has been changing dramatically. The most common or noticeable change in the environment is the increase in temperature and the rise of sea water levels globally. According to National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration, the global sea level and has risen up 2.6 inches and continues rise at a rate of about one-eighth of an inch per year. With this being said, many ecosystem consisting animal, marine and microbial life will be affect. A particular animal that is in question is sea urchins. Sea urchins are marine organisms that have been experiencing a higher mortality rates due to the changes climate and bioaccumulation
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Sea urchins are quite often a species unlooked by society, for it is not used as a major food source or a commodity in the USA market. However, sea urchin are one of the most diverse groups of echinoderms. Sea urchins are small invertebrates that known for their spiny, hard shell made of calcium carbonate and are found usually on the seafloor of the ocean. Their shell is packed tightly with plates with calcium carbonate spines fitted as all around to protect the sea urchin from prey. These spines aids in movement and camouflage to protect and hide the organism. On the outside of sea urchin, there are transparent tubes that come out and allow the animal to adhere to the sea floor and move but at a relative slow pace. They play a critical role in the seafloor communities. Their reproductive process is quite different than most animals such that fertilization occurs outside or in vitro. The male sea urchins release their sperm while females release their eggs in the water where fertilization happens and the new offspring grows to maturity. These organisms are herbivores and feed off of kelp, sea grass, and macro algae as a means of sustenance to sustain life. Therefore, these organism can affect the kelp abundance underwater. This makes them keystone species. Keystone species are animals that an ecosystem need heavily or rely on in order…show more content…
The latest annual average temperature has risen up 0.99 degrees Celsius in 2017 from 1984. This is nearly 1 degree Celsius up from what normally environment and animals are accustomed to. One way humans found a way to protect him or herself is by using sunscreen. Sunscreen or sunblock is topical type of lotion used to prevent burning of the skin from the sun’s ultra violet rays. Ultra violet (UV) filters are an important class of emerging contaminants. According to the EU Cosmetics Directive for commercial cosmetic, twenty-eight UV filters have been listed consisting of up to 10% as an active ingredients and 25% for titanium dioxide. These UV filters are not only found in sunscreens, but in lotions, lipsticks, shower gels, hair sprays and shampoos. When these filter are released into the water by showering and wastewater disposal they dissolve into the water and accumulate in the fish communities. A certain chemical, oxybenzone, was found in most sunscreens that benefitted humans but not the organisms that inhabit marine ecosystem. Oxybenzone (Benzophenone-3) is an emerging human and environmental contaminant used in sunscreens and personal care products to help minimize the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation. It is quite a common UV filters are found predominantly found in sunscreens; in addition, it was a common that UV filters are detected in rivers and lakes up to

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