C., 1992, “Guidelines for the evaluation of language education”. In J. C. Alderson & A. Beretta (Eds. ), Evaluating second language education (pp.274-304). Cambridge, England: CambridgeUniversity Press. Alderson, J. C., & D. Wall, 1993, “Does washback exist?”, Applied Linguistics, 14 (115-129).
“Interlanguage refers to the separateness of a second language learner’s system, a system that has a structurally intermediate status between the native and target language.” (Selinker, 1972) This system is neither the system of the native language nor that of the target language, but instead falls between the two. The Interlanguage Hypothesis presented new understandings of second language acquisition and learning, and it presented a substantial breakthrough from the restrictions of the contrastive analysis hypothesis which claimed that second language learning is a process of acquiring whatever items are different from the first language. The best way to approach Interlanguage is to study the speech and writing of learners. This is directly
2.6. Segments Basic Speaking Effectiveness Hymes (1971) trusts that L2 learners are required to know both the linguistic information and the culturally suitable approaches to connect with others in differing circumstances. Based on Hymes, communicative competence is made out of syntactic, psycholinguistic, sociolinguistic, and language components. Communicative competence went under some different changes by Canale and Swain (1980) who set that communicative competence infolds grammatical competence, discourse competence, sociolinguistic competence, and strategic competence which fundamentally show the utilization of linguistic framework and the efficient parts of communication. 2.6.1.
The Longman Dictionary of applied linguistics provides a more pedagogically oriented characterization .Here, it is suggested that a task is Any activity or action which is carried out as the result of proceeding or understanding language ( i.e., as a person ) . For example, drawing a map while listening to a tape, listening to an instruction and performing a command , may be referred to as tasks . (Richard Platt & Weber , 1985, p. 289 )The value of tasks, according to authors, is that they provide a purpose for the activity which goes beyond the practice of language for its own
First, language acquisition is understood as the process in which the mother tongue is acquired. And second language acquisition is a process in which the new system of communication is achieved through assimilation. First of all, there are several theories on how a first language is acquired, nevertheless, there are two philosophical perspectives pertaining to this topic, empiricism and nativism. The nativist perspective states that children are born with an innate aptitude to develop the language. On the contrary, the empirical perspective establishes
Thus, I will refer to this concept, which is addressed in “A Comprehensive Review of Studies on Second Language Writing” by Jun (2008) and “A Brief Historical Sketch of Second Language Writing Studies: A Retrospective” by Fujieda (2006). After reading both texts, some similarities and differences can be identified in regards to the role of L1 when writing in L2. For instance, Kaplan in Fujeda in the text “A Brief Historical Sketch of Second Language Writing Studies: A Retrospective” (2006) points out that rhetorical patterns are transferred from the writer’s native language to the L2. Kaplan also mentions that native speakers of English, usually write using a linear way of writing, going from a general to more specific ideas. As opposed to other rhetorical patterns
Doughty & Williams, 1998; Ellis, 2002; Norris & Ortega, 2002) and indicates that such studies have demonstrated evidence that FonF facilitates second language (L2) learners‟ acquisition of target morpho-syntactic forms or features. He further maintains that current concern has shifted to what constitutes the most effective pedagogical techniques in specific classroom settings, considering the choice of linguistic forms, the explicitness, and the mode of instruction. As Doughty (2001) argues “the factor 16 that distinguishes focus on form from other pedagogical approaches is the requirement that focus on form involves learners' briefly and perhaps simultaneously attending to form, meaning, and use during one cognitive event”(p .
Simplification Researchers in the field of Second Language Learning agree (SLA) on the idea that L2 learners need to be exposed to input of the target language. In addition, for the language acquisition to occur successfully, the comprehension of the input needs take place(Chaudron, 1985). Therefore, for the researchers it is both empirically and theoretically interesting to find out that how input makes comprehensible to learners with limited proficiency. The accepted fact among researchers is that receiving data is necessary to learn a language. And the data is any kind of language through any medium like reading and listening that the learning person is exposed to(Gass & Mackey, 2006).
They question the desirability of identifying the learning of English with the culture of the native speaker, and counter-propose the use of local varieties of English. Suggestion in this position is the desirability of bilingual/bicultural teachers of English as a foreign language. (Alptekin and Alptekin, 1984: 14; see also Rampton, 1990, who questions the status of the ‘native speaker’ at a time when world English is a mosaic of many non-native – and ‘nativized’-