The Importance Of Self-Regulation

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What Is Self-Regulation?
Baumeister and Vohs, (2004) define “self-regulation” as “the exercise of control over oneself, especially with regard to bringing the self into line with preferred (thus, regular) standards”(p.2). The terms “self-regulation” and “self-control” are being used interchangeably, although some researchers make subtle distinctions between the two. Some researchers use “self-regulation” more broadly to refer to goal-directed behavior whereas “self-control” may be associated specifically with conscious impulse control (Baumeister & Vohs, 2004). According to Schmeichel and Baumeister (2004), “selfregulation” refers to both conscious and unconscious alteration of responses by the self, while “self-control” implies a more deliberate
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Under the umbrella of self-direction exists the following two constructs: (a) self-directed learning which incorporates the concepts of the adult learner and teaching-learning process set forth by Knowles, and (b) learner self-direction which focuses on characteristics internal to the individual that “predisposes one toward taking primary responsibility” (p. 29).
The Effort Management Hierarchy model
The Effort Management Hierarchy model (Thomas & Rohwer, 1993) is based on four hierarchical levels of study activity. These activities include monitoring, selfregulation, planning and evaluating. Thomas and Rohwer purport that learner selfdirection occurs in a continuum of activities which range from awareness of need to individual control of one’s study efforts to include concentration, time and learning effectiveness. Regulation and remediation are key to self-directed learning.
Zimmerman’s triadic self-regulation
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Forethought: including goal setting, selection of strategies and methods, assessing self-efficacy, assessing mastery or performance goal orientation and assessing interest and social modeling
2. Performance control: including focusing attention (excluding distractions and other competing attentions), comparing one’s performance to that of other learners and providing self-instruction with regard to strategies, and self-monitoring of progress 3. Self-reflection: including self-evaluation against a standard or goal, attributions to ability or effort, resultant feedback, self-reactions and adaptation, and self-reward for performance success (Condensed from Cleary and Zimmerman, 2004)
1. Forethought phase: Students evaluate their needs (Dembo & Seli, 2004) and the task at

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