Body And the Visibility Discourse In The History of Sexuality, Foucault discusses how identity gets formulated by various discourses. The subject of discourse gets restrained within a certain kind of identity which the discourse heaps upon it. During the nineteenth century, the homosexual but not the heterosexual “became a personage, a past, a case history, and a childhood, in addition to being a type of life form, and morphology, with an indiscreet anatomy and possibly a mysterious physiology” (Foucault 1976: 43). This suggests that the modern state with its state apparatus’ had the potential to recognize and had invested in recognizing the homosexual unlike the heterosexual counterpart. Since this kind of sexuality was an aberration, and
Basically in this queer theory we not only study about homosexualities but all those groups which are considered to be “deviant” or abnormal by our society. This theory also tells about how they are constructed, how they are operated and how they are enforced in the society. According to one of the theorist named Annamarie Jagose who wrote Queer Theory : An Introduction in 1997, the term “queer” focuses on mismatches between sex, gender and desire. For most of the people queer is associated simply to those who are identified or classified as lesbian or gay. But rarely people know that the term “queer” is just not limited to cover only a
According to Savin & Williams (2006:41), sexual identity is defined as personally selected, socially and historically bound labels attached to the perceptions and meanings individuals have about their sexuality. Sexual identities usually fall within existing social categories such as straight, bisexual, transgender and homosexual (gay/lesbian). Klein in Evans et al. (2010:307) stressed that sexual identity does not only include sexual activity but also includes emotional preference, social preference, lifestyle, and self-identification, as well as sexual attraction, fantasy, and behavior. All of these things should be considered to provide a complete picture of sexual identity.
However, with the recent development of Queer Theory, the body and the complex relationship between sex and gender began to progressively receive special attention. In this context, the notion of sexuality and gender has been destabilized against the notion of self and what is considered to be natural. Psychologists like Sigmund Freud began to question this idea in the early XX century. Freud not only challenged the nature of homosexuality (inversion) but also the nature of heterosexuality. Then, this idea of nature would be changed by interpretations of particular historical moments and relationships of power.
In Henry L. Minton’s Gay and Lesbian Studies, he presented some of the possible ways that homosexuality could be defined as from different opposing angles. From the psychobiological perspective, “homosexuality = sexual behavior with a member of the organism’s own sex” (Denniston). While some viewed the term as more than just a behavior, but a lifestyle; “I have always been bothered by the definition of homosexuality as a behavior. Scratching is a behavior. Homosexuality is a way of being, one that can completely influence a person’s life and shape its meaning and direction” (Grahn).
Brad’s regret characterizes most of the story and it seems that Linda Heuring wants the readers to remember that one cannot undo what one has said or done, even though the conditions, under which it was done, change. Zebo and Henry’s prejudice against OB, who they call goth and psycho, affects the narrator’s choices and actions, and from that it can be concluded that prejudice is contagious. People have often persecuted those who are different, be it black people, homosexuals or the skinny kid with the glasses. Ms. Heuring addresses this issue in an impartial way, which is likely to have a greater impact on people, than if she had written the story with a clear message, because then she would have seemed
In the 18th and 19th centuries, the emphasis then moved on to more “unnatural” groups like the sexuality of children, the criminals and the homosexuals. An individual’s sexuality seemed to explain a lot about the character of that individual. Labelling perverts generated a sense of power in the minds of the people who studied on sexuality and the perverts themselves. Foucault said that the bourgeoisie society showcased undisguised, fragmented perversion, but controlled where it could take
“The books that the world calls immoral are books that show its own shame”. The final passage from The Picture of Dorian Gray by controversial author Oscar Wilde. This is a thought provoking example of Wilde’s beliefs on censorship and self-realization. Wilde states that any book the world deems immoral, or inappropriate, is because the book reveals a shameful aspect of the world that people, and especially leaders, do not support or agree with, because it has the potential to spoil the righteous reputation they consider themselves to have. Censorship of this manner has occurred for decades, but barely any books should be censored to the point where they are banned.
On analyzing I came to a point that this hesitation in addressing reproductive health issues with a male care provider could be a reason of strong societal and cultural norms. This problem has a very profound impact on care in the eastern countries where the gap of ratio between Health care providers and patients is already too large. Furthermore female patients, giving child birth do not feel restful being handled by the male nurses; especially during delivery. Their existence in the delivery room is disliked by many women and on the other hand male nursing student also find this experience stressful because of the ignorance which they face from the patient and dislike from their attendants. Liang et al.
Indian constitution claim to treat human equally before law, prohibition of discrimination on the various ground, equal opportunity in public employment including sex, freedom of expression and protection of life and personal liberty in article 14 to 21 but still policy makers undermine the existence of transgender in various policies. Even if there are some provision available for this community then service provider, responsible for implementing those policy; like hospitals, police and various government department shows irresponsible attitude. Discrimination in providing proper medical facilities, no case registration against violence with Hijra and ignorance in providing proper document by government departments increases their vulnerability. Low political representation, highly patriarchy society and culture didn’t allow them to be part of the society. Religious norms also contribute a lot which consider homo sex as crime.