In the first section of Common Sense, Thomas Paine characterizes government as he sees it, which is still an influential viewpoint. His characterization is perhaps best summed up in his own succinct words: “government even in its best state is but a necessary evil.” These words speak measures to his attitude towards the fundamental nature of government—an attitude that shaped a political party in his time that has evolved over time with the core concept relatively intact. For Paine and modern conservatives alike, government is only rendered necessary due to the inadequacies of moral virtue in running a society. To illustrate this concept, Paine supports his idea with a hypothetical island. When a society develops, it will become necessary for a government to compensate for the eventual defect of moral virtue in individuals.
The answer is obviously to find socially CSR projects that can be advantageous to the organization; however, many believe that this defeats the aim of carrying responsible business practices. It is controversial as to how much a business should sacrifice in its aspiration for social responsibility. • Shareholder Resistance to CSR Some investors do look to acquire stock in socially responsible corporations, but, on the whole, investors purchase stock on the expectations of turning a profit. While some companies, such as Toyota and GE, have profited from corporate social responsibility, companies that adopt such policies often prove as likely to lose money. Given the spotty track record of corporate social responsibility in demonstrating profit increase, investors may resist attempts by executives to move a company in that direction.
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Most original political philosopher of the 17th century Published his most influential work Leviathan which provided a philosophical justification for a strong central political authority. Portrayed human beings and society in materialistic and mechanical way. Did not see god as a source of political authority Said monarchy is the effective to maintain order 1. Absolutism in Western Europe Cont. France Henry IV and Richelieu Henry was loyal and caring to his people Tolerated every religion Minister Sully brought economic stability and financial growth Cardinal Richelieu imposed direct royal administration on France.
On the other hand, Vernon points out that, observers of the British constitution, discovered the key to the success of the British government, lies with its triumph in combining “freedom with stability” . It has often been argued that, fundamentally, the absence of written constitution in UK, is the by-product of a historical coincidence; as typically throughout history, revolutions, wars & political events were the primary cause of constitutional change; e.g. the American Revolution steered the ratification of the US Declarations
The Ethical Necessity/Imperative Companies yield to social pressures for change and ethical duties by giving token concessions to its stakeholders under the name of “social responsibility” or by the owners doing philanthropic activities. These concessions are but partial, if not artificial, commitment to ethical responsibility, and only a fraction of companies do these. There remains a lack of genuine initiative to “ethicize” business institutions. But why is there a need for a greater, real ethical responsibility? Position: Companies and business people should be ethical Point 1: Being ethical in business strengthens the systems and relationships that support and sustain it Individuals, through corporations, have the right to amass wealth, but morality dictates that they do so ethically.
The most general argument in favour of institutional analysis lies in the idea that institutions have to be interpreted by political actors (Lowndes and Roberts 2013). Institutions do not act. Only actors act. What this means is that just as institutions are the result of the actions of actors, so post-institutional outcomes are the result of equivalent actions. In other words, even if institutions have been constructed in a particular way on the basis of very specific preferences, actors still have to work within these institutional structures subsequently.
In other words these are the powers that rule the United Kingdom until today. These separation of powers as a lot of philosophers and specialists have told before is very important for the simple reason that Montesquieu mentioned very clearly “When legislative power is united with executive powers in a single person or in a single body there is no liberty, because one can fear that the same monarch or senate that makes tyrannical laws will execute them tyrannically”. Although these statements, we can see that we do not have a strict separation between the three functions, as Bagehot said in his writings “the close union, the nearly complete fusion, of the executive and legislative powers”, with cabinet being responsible to
When it comes to the concept of "business ethics", it is often assumed that there is an abstract element or unreal. These business people do not understand this concept and do not fully understand the role of ethical in business. Meanwhile, business ethics has a great role for the development of enterprises. In fact, economists have demonstrated that corporate profits associated with ethics, and increase the level of profits tied to increase level of ethics. So businesses do not understand the role of business ethics, no sense of building ethical business in the enterprise, the enterprise will be very difficult to go to the highest success.
It is also very much true that such rule of law varies from one society to another society, a particular law which is supreme in one society may not be supreme in another society. The rule of law requires both citizens and Government to be subjected to standing law. According to eminent Professor Dicey, the rule of law presupposes the absence of wide discretionary authority among the rulers and that they are unable to govern according to their own laws and they actually end up governing and implementing the existing laws . So one condition of rule of law that it should be embedded with morality and then only it would act as a strong yardstick to control the society. The rule of law also
Lack of corporate governance is the main constraint of SMEs development. Generally, people are unaware of this concept but when known, should adopt it. There is a strong connection between corporate governance and economic growth and company’s profitability. They are directly related to each other. Much importance has been gained by corporate governance in