These experiences interact with activities (Lynn: concrete and abstract guidance; Darseni: learner-centric authentic learning experiences) during the learning episode to result in learning. However, the theories differ on the learner’s role in initiating the learning process, because Lynn’s leaves the initiator of the experience open, while Darseni’s stresses that learning experiences need to be learner-initiated or based on learner’s interest. The difference is due to the different objectives of learning. The initiator is not important in Lynn’s theory because learning is considered achieved as long as the learner demonstrates a change or acquisition of a skill. On the other hand, the initiator is important in Darseni’s theory because learning only takes place when the learner becomes self-directed and reflective.
Explain why teachers should adopt “ differentiated instruction “ in class” The cornerstone of differentiation is active planning, the teacher plans instruction strategically to meet learners where they are and to offer multiple avenues through which they can acces, understand and apply learning. In differentiating lessons, teachers must take into account not only what they are teaching ( content) but also whom they are teaching (individual that is students). They need to know the varying readiness level , interests and learning profiles of each of their students and the design learning options to fit into these factors. Differentiated instruction means giving students choices about how to learn and how to demonstrate their learning. It is a way in which the teacher anticipates and responds to variety of student’s needs.
However, as they get older and reach a mature age and are capable enough of handling responsibilities, the responsibility of the teacher towards them gradually decreases. Independent learning is not when students learn independently or without any guidance, but merely learning with the support of teachers. As an independent learner, you are required to plan what, why, how, where and with whom you want to learn and also control the pace and direction of work. The learner decides the speed of his/her learning and which path he/she may like to take in order to complete the learning
Here the teacher acts like an expert or stands in a position of power. Whereas in student centred learning the teacher is a facilitator, personal model who leads by example or a delegator as a’ resource’ to the students. Both students and teacher play an active role in the learning. Their learning is measured continuously both formally and informally which includes group work, think-pair-share, student portfolios and class participation. As learners are placed in responsibility of their own learning and development.
This assignment’s compilation serves the purpose of critically discussing the importance of primary school educators’ ability to understand theories of child development and their use within Intermediate phase education. Children perceive information in altered manners at particular stages of their development; this will be discussed further in this essay. Theories include Behaviourism, Constructivism and Cognitivism. It is imperative for educators to be aware of the theories that are applicable to the children they interact with, thus allowing them to provide information and activities for the learners in numerous manners to aid their development. The Behaviourists believed that our behaviour is shaped by the environment.
In a learning environment, teachers want to help students engage with what they are doing to promote deeper understanding" (Kohn, 1997c). The student-directed learning theory implies that the teacher should share the
Community of Practice by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger (1998) strengthened my personal belief of learning in groups who share a craft or profession or learn from each other by sharing information and experiences. Using this theory I’ve tried to group my learners according to some similarities towards their learning styles and interests. And finally Kolb’s (1984) Experiential Learning Cycle had helped me in my lesson plans to stage the objective in the form of experience, observation, reflection and then again planning for a new learning session. The entire journey has been a re-learning mode for me where I have also learnt how to make my class more Inclusive by using differentiation techniques in tasks and
These theories outline the characteristics of some of the practical models of adult learning. Malcolm Knowles theory Being the pioneer in the field of adult learning, Knowles presented series of assumptions that were patterned after the work of Lindeman, which guided his view about adult learning. Form his research he found out that adults are usually motivated to learn from being in situations in which they see a need to learn. Adults are also oriented to the broad range of affairs in their life and not to narrow subjects. This makes adult education to be multidisciplinary rather than subject oriented.
Training for skills and vocations is particularly heavily saturated with learning and being reinforced for "correct responses and behaviors." 2. The cognitivist perspective : Cognitivist theories of learning are concerned processes which occur inside brain and nervous system as a person learn. They share perspective that people actively processes information and learning takes place through the efforts of the learner. Internal mental processes include inputting organizing, storing, retrieving and finding relationships between information.
It means that they are free to choose their direction of their own learning programme and they should be assumed to take responsibility for their own learning process by engaging themselves in discussions, group-based task, presentations, participation in multiple learning activities whether it is in classroom based activities or outdoor activities. At the same time, they also should involve excessively in exploring the detail of the topic of discussion. Either it is distance e-learning course or it is classroom based course, the role of teacher or instructor is to act as a facilitator or supervisor by guiding them on how to gain their own knowledge acquisition instead of supplying them the fact in total. Through this principle, they could be learned effectively and will have strong inner motivation to drive them to acquire the new skill or any particular type of knowledge that they want to gain. The second principle of adult learning is the adult learners could bring their previous knowledge and experience into each of their current learning activities.