Social innovations (SI) can be described as new solutions that can take the form of products, services, models, markets, processes etc. that satisfy a social need and lead to a more efficient use of assets and resources (Caulier-Grice et al. 2012) and creation of social outputs irrespective of economic sectors (non-profit, public, private etc.). In that sense the social innovation can be implemented as a new product, production process, technology, principle, idea, movement or any combination of them that responds to existing social demand and influences the process of social interactions. According to Caulier- Grice et al.
CSR is important for the multinationals to perform in foreign countries because of the growing competition and other challenges that are faced by an organization; the management theory is used as a tool to encounter such challenges ( Ismail, 2009). Donaldson (1989, cited in Secchi, 2007 :359) CSR also acts upon the firms managerial decisions when there are problems such as clashes, protests and strikes, these lay down the moral values, above profit maximization. Managerial theories performance depends on stakeholders trust, co operation and acceptance. Garrige and Mele ( 2004) Detomasi( 2008) were all of a view that social power drives the social responsibility as the corporation is a corporate citizen, who has investment in the community. Davies (1960) stated that CSR is a political power and therefore must be used responsibly as a business is social institution; its power comes from both within and outside.
Thus independent social entrepreneurs have an important complementary role to undertake flexible and continuous innovations, experimentations and dealing with various current or future problems. In order to be successful the social entrepreneur is reliant on the existence of supportive institutions (legal, cultural, organizational etc. environment) to promote the ideas of social entrepreneurship. Thus this process should go hand in hand with active institution building process and establishment of mechanisms for knowledge dissemination, designing financial markets and necessary underpinning structures to improve the selection and investment process. On the other hand, the microeconomic perspective on social entrepreneurship according to Santos F. (2009) is that the SE have the objective to generate value to society through the proposal of sustainable solutions to unresolved social problems.
Thus, it is now being undertaken throughout the globe and increasingly become an important activity to businesses nationally and internationally. (Corporate social, 2004) CSR becomes a fundamental business practice. One of the essential elements to achieve good business practices and effective leadership is strong CSR program. Companies also determine that the relationships with stakeholders both internal and external will be directly affected by their impact on economic, social and environmental landscape. (Corporate social, 2004) In accordance to Estallo, Fuente & Miquela (2007), they claimed that companies can yield higher level of profit with a long term socially responsible behavior and which might become a competitive advantage.
In the recent business world, various strategies re being employed by companies with various aims including that of increasing its competitiveness, increasing the profits as well as increasing its working environment among others. Most companies have engaged in the employment of corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a strategy of increasing their benefits which in return are expected to give the company using it a competitive advantage. Corporate social responsibility is a business practice that comprises of initiatives aimed at benefiting the society and can include various tactics including those of implementing business operations that are greener as well as giving away a portion of the proceedings held by a company to charity. This social
They want firms to supply quality goods and services efficiently in a way that minimizes adverse social or environmental costs.” (Corporate Social Responsibility: Partners for Progress OECD, Paris 2001) Bryan Horrigan underlines that CSR scholarship in the 21st century engages new debates and themes, while also making the transition from 20th century and sometimes even residual 18th and 19th century thinking and practices surrounding corporations. The true multi-disciplinary character of CSR, the reality that greater societal and global problems are addressed by CSR, and new insights into CSR`s deep complexity are all increasingly reflected in scholarly works devoted to the wide range of academic and work-related standpoints from which CSR must be assessed in its analysis and practice worldwide. (Horrigan,
QUESTIONS: 1. How would you define a social enterprise? It is widely known to all that social enterprise is used to mean a unit of business, traditional enterprise provides value for their customers and shareholders, while social enterprise is driven by social goals, creating societal wealth for the society (Chalmers, D. and Fraser, S. 2012). Therefore, lots of scholars tend to explain it from the aspect of why it is social instead of private, according to Mulgan, G. (2006), the whole organisation and activities are aim to their social mission, which is devoted to solving a series of social problems, such as helping disadvantaged groups, conducting fair trade, etc., as well as environmental issues like sustainable development. However, this
An effective CSR requires an understanding of the social dimensions of the company’s competitive context—the “outside-in” linkages that affect its ability to improve productivity and execute strategy. These can be understood using the diamond framework, which shows how the conditions at a company’s locations Competitiveness in social context Successful corporations need a healthy society of productive workforce with education, health care, and equal opportunity. Safe products and working conditions not only attract customers but lower the internal costs of accidents. Efficient utilization of land, water, energy, and other natural resources makes business more productive. Good government, the rule of law, and property rights are essential Looking Inside Out: Mapping the Social Impact of the Value
According to Moir (2001) who quotes Wood (1991), the fundamental idea of corporate social responsibility is that business and society are not distinct entities but instead interwoven. Additionally, Bremner (1994) opines that the pressure for those who prosper financially to be socially “responsible” has deep historical roots in most cultures and religions. As such, business enterprises have been anchored not only in the desire to solely make profit but also in a broader aim to build “the good society” by attending to the welfare of employees and actively partaking in public life (Hall, 1997; Parkes, Scully & Anson, 2010). Conversely, Aaron (2011) attributes this to the recent ‘corporate enthusiasm’ for CSR which seems to give the impression that companies are genuinely interested in improving the lives of people in communities in which they operate. Arguing that while in some cases it may be true that CSR has proved beneficial to target communities, it also appears that CSR is driven not so much by philanthropic considerations as the profit-maximising calculations of business, implying that corporations are involved in altruistic gestures only if it makes sense business wise (Aaron, 2011).
First, social innovation is a development of innovation theory and management, but applied to social and public policy goals. Second, social innovation is inherently collaborative. This means that the key role of public managers is to productively partner with social innovators (who may also be public managers) including by ‘co-framing’ the problem and then ‘co-solving’ it. Third, social innovation seeks to harness and strengthen society’s capacity to act to promote general well-being by creating new partnerships between citizens and the state. From Tucker’s point of view in particular to the second and third strand, ECRDA is to be explored as to whether internal collaboration across departments will source the productive synergies to advance the service delivery beyond expectations.