Schein defines culture as “a pattern of basic assumptions - invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problem of external adaptation and internal integration- that has worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to those problems” (Schein, 1990). Even, Cook and Rousseau (1998) define organizational culture as “a set of beliefs, values, behavioral patterns and assumptions shared by the members of an organization” (cited by An, Yom, Ruggiero, 2010). Harrison & Stokes (1992) state culture distinguish one organization from another. (cited by An, Yom, Ruggiero, 2010) Organizational culture is a multidimensional concept. Researcher has identified and proposed different typologies of culture.
They makes us conform to the standards and ideologies that are reinforced in society. Ideology is part of a system of belief that a culture produces in order to function is a certain way. They are produced and affirmed through the social institutions in a given society Cavallaro (2001:76) says that ideology can be defined in 2 ways; neutrally, as ideas without political connotations; and critically, as ideas in which people categorise each other within a socio-historical and economic
These can be like laws that don’t affect the person in society apart from stopping a certain aspect of their behaviour from occurring. Durkheim suggests two ways in which these can occur firstly by determining the cause of it from previous facts, the other that it is needed to help one of the functions of society. Both are present in society as a whole, these according to functionalists control and maintain the functions of society that is mainly true in today’s society with law and order as a form of social control. Durkheim pointed out that in society a combination of social facts like morals and values, which restrict and keep some control over society, and needs like food and reproduction, which are essential. In present society this is also clearly present with values and norms taught throughout the socialization process and societies control that is mostly accepted and holds functions of society together and keep them functional.
Ref #9 There are different organizational cultural factors that differ across organizations and they impact knowledge sharing (Bures, 2003). More prominent factors which identified are trust, collaboration, empowerment, politics, power and autonomy. The organizations ability to cultivate and reinforce them will positively force employees to share with others (Delong and Fahey, 2000). Nonaka and Takeutschi (1995) believed that an autonomous individual endeavors for personal development thus increasing the probability of personal growth, knowledge creation and knowledge sharing. Schein (2004) examined organizational culture is tacit and unarticulated rule for new joiners in an organization in order to stay along with other member.
However, long term 0rganizational existence depends on how well the efforts of individuals and groups within the 0rganization are tied together, in line and sequenced so that people work efforts fit together effectively. Moreover, a strong 0rganizational culture provides greater stability of 0rganizational working. As such, an imitation of these findings, the following hypothesize was developed: Organizational culture is fundamentally “a pattern of basic assumptions that a group has invented, revealed, or developed in learning to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal assimilation (Schein, 1983, p.14). Leaders facilitate the achievement of goals that otherwise may not have been attempted and support the need for change (Rousseau, 1996;Schein, 1985; Trice & Beyer, 1993) and therefore, they may be the
Theoretically, functional analysis and the conflict theory share similarities because they both comprehend society's at a larger viewpoint and both group individuals together by class or either symbols. Rather than this functionalist approach beginning with the individual, the functionalist analysis of deviance begins with society as a whole. The functionalist perspective believes deviance serves two primary roles in creating social stability for a society. The first primary goal is systems of recognizing and punishing deviance create norms and tell members of a given society how to properly behave by laying out the guidelines of what is acceptable and unacceptable behavior. Mainly, everyone must be aware of what behaviors are considered deviant in order to avoid an unsettling society.
Honesty between two people can depend on the personal experiences, but if more people have the same experiences with the same person or a group of people or ethnicity it can be generalized as well as it can be a community norm as well. Putnam has explained social trust depends on strong personal relationships, frequent as well as nested in the wider network. He called it as thick trust (Putnam, 2000, p. 136). CBOs are helping to start to thin relationships and develop it into thick relationships. It depends on the personal willingness.
A lot of people argue about what social cohesion mean, but there is a certain level of consensus that that they reach when it comes to its definition. Social cohesion is said to be there in a society when there is coherence, unity and functionalism in them, and also are providing an atmosphere within which the citizens can flourish . To put it in other words, the concept “social cohesion”, is the main thing that promotes unity in a society. Under this there is social justice which is a key. This can be defined as the measure of fairness and equity in a society according to the people’s involvement politics, economics and cultural activities in their community.
Psychologists are debating and trying to figure out whether the social identity theory, a theory developed by Tajfel Turner (1979) for the examination of intergroup relations, is a robust way of explaining behaviour. There has been many research studies in the past that proves that it is a robust way of explaining behaviour. Social identity theory explains human behaviours such as in-group favouritism, and ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism is the act of believing that one’s social group is centrally important, and that all other groups are below them on the social pyramid. In this case, one will judge other groups on their ethnic group, language, religion and behaviour.
Social Relations in Modern Societies Simmel defined society as a community of individuals that existed and prevails through the process of socialization where their interests shall motivate them to unite and come together (Adair-Toteff, 2005). In other words, an individual’s pursuance of self-interest requires one to interact with others that shaped the individual’s social self without compromising the individual’s unique disposition of autonomy (Applerouth & Edles, 2012). Here, Simmel’s approach on society emphasized the concept of duality and the different forms of interactions that took place during the pursuance of interests. For instance, the nature of job interview would often result in the applicant showcasing his achievements and potentials, differentiating himself from other applicants with hope to propel as someone that is valuable to the employer. In this case, the application of duality refers to the process of which the individual assumed his identity of capabilities while preserving his individuality for the employers to evaluate his job interview.