The astonishing fact was all participants would continue to 300 volts, which would precipitate extreme torment. Furthermore, two-thirds would proceed on to shock the learner with 450 volts, which would result in death, hypothetically.
He uses an example of research conducted by Terry Orlick, a sports psychologist at the University of Ottawa, in order to support his claim. Further, he mentions that the objective of even the friendliest games such as tennis is to make the opponent fail. Kohn continues to state that there is a psychological cost of competitive games: the more an individual compete, the more that individual needs to compete to feel good about himself. Moreover, he states that there is a toxic effect on relationships due to competition. Especially children tend to envy winners and be suspicious of just about everyone.
The Milgram Experiment Usually, people follow given orders from authority. Authority can be a work boss, parents, teachers, etc. We are taught to follow orders at a young age so we won’t have issues with obedience in the future. The Milgram Experiment was basically testing how far someone could commit to their obedience before it became too much. There were two groups in this experiment, the teachers and students.
Everyday people will follow orders given by the authority, whether they want to or not and even if they think it is wrong. Stanley Milgram did countless studies on this to find the truth behind the startling idea. He was curious to know if people would follow orders given by the authority to the point of hurting another human being. The test included a teach, learner and experimenter. The learner hand to memorize word pairings, and every time the learner gave a wrong pair they were given an electric shock, 15 volts (little shock) to 450 volts (XXX).
The Milgram experiment was conducted to analyze obedience to authority figures. The experiment was conducted on men from varying ages and varying levels of education. The participants were told that they would be teaching other participants to memorize a pair of words. They believed that this was an experiment that was being conducted to measure the effect that punishment has on learning, because of this they were told they had to electric shock the learner every time that they answered a question wrong. The experiment then sought out to measure with what willingness the participants obeyed the authority figure, even when they were instructed to commit actions which they seemed uncomfortable with.
The teacher was told to administer an electric shock every time the learner makes a mistake. Volunteers were being watched by an experimenter who would ask the teachers to continue whenever they hesitated. The volunteers were also asked to raise the level of volts as the experiment proceeded. Two-thirds of the participants (teachers) continued to the highest level of 450 volts. All the participants continued to 300 volts.
As Prinz (Prinz,2011) states, humans decide whether something is wrong by their feelings. If that situation makes them uncomfortable in a way, us, the humans, conclude that is wrong. According to this, people’s moral judgments are based on their emotional states. Further support for my point can be seen in research by psychologist Simone Schnall (cited in Prinz, 2011), as her experiment about putting people in uncomfortable situations, for example forcing them to watch a disgusting movie, lead them to make more severe judgments even about an unrelated topic. If morals are based on emotions then people who lack strong emotions must be blind to morality.
So, whenever I found an opportunity or whenever a teacher researcher, a colleague, a teacher trainer or a novice teacher requested to observe my lesson, without hesitation, I accepted to be observed throughout my lessons. Although they wanted to make use of the observation for their study or for their professional development, I also benefit from these observations by asking them to comment on my
Summary Hall and Fincham give the insight into self-forgiveness, as preceding researchers paid little attention to this topic. They stress that the avoidance of self-forgiveness may lead to mental and physical consequences; and it may result in a suicide. This challenged the authors to raise awareness about self-forgiveness, organise the knowledge of the matter, and encourage further research. Hall and Fincham started with detailed description of both interpersonal and intrapersonal forgiveness from the perspective of philosophy, psychology, and social studies. A philosophical understanding “as a show of good will toward the self while one clears the mind of the self-hatred and self-contempt that result from hurting another” (p. 622) argues
“We do not learn from experience…we learn from reflecting on experience” (John Dewey). Reflecting can help educators look clearly at the successes and struggles of a lesson and come up with ideas for improving our teaching. Reflecting is a valuable tool that helps educators be aware of how they are teaching, which in the end will make them a successful educator. One way to reflect is by videotaping yourself. Watching yourself teach will provide insight about how you respond to students, your speaking skills, your body language, and your nonverbal cues.