enjoyment. Play can also be considered a rehearsal for acting-out real life events – such can be seen when children play house or school (Parsons, 2011). Also, play is so important and essential that it is included in the United Nation Convention of the Rights of the Child as stated in Article 31 (Leisure, Play and Culture): Children have the right to relax and play and to join in a wide range of cultural, artistic and other recreational activities (www.unicef.org). According to Bergen &Fromberg (2006), play is important to the optimum development of children. Unfortunately, though there is abundant research evidence showing that play supports young children’s social, emotional, physical and cognitive development, it has often ignored or addressed
Another way that is interesting in infant nonverbal communication is allowing infants to play with each other. “In order for babies to feel secure and relate to other babies they need what is called a primary caregiver and continuity of care. Free play in a safe, developmentally appropriate environment with peers is another basic requirement. The Pikler approach makes a case for a firm surface where babies can be with each other and free to move. At Pikler Institute, caregivers place babies who are past the newborn stage on their backs in a playpen large enough for a group.
This can be done allowing the child to create a puppet show. As puppets serve a vital role in play therapy children are able to easily project their feelings and thoughts on to puppets (http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~drbryce/Play%20Therapy%20Techniques.pdf). This game which was created by Carolyn J. Narcavage, will allow the child to overcome resistance while engaging in the game (Kaduson & Schaefer, 1997). Using puppets to express their inner feelings will create a symbolic client in the therapeutic environment. This would help to remove therapist’s focus on the child where child’s comfort level will increase and allow the child to stay at a safe emotional distance
As I discussed above, Piaget believed that all children sought out information and they would naturally develop these abilities but Vygotsky presents a more logical theory. As children, our interaction with our surroundings and the people around us shapes how we develop. “According to Vygotsky, language is the basis for cognitive development, including the ability to remember, solve problems, make decisions and formulate plans” (Martin et al., 2010). When young children below the age of seven would say words to themselves, Piaget saw this as an egocentric and non-social act whereas Vygotsky saw this is an early learning and memorisation process. Once the child reached a certain age (middle childhood), they would stop talking to themselves thus developing what he called an “inner speech”.
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Cognition is a process where different aspects of the mind are working together that lead to knowledge. Piaget’s cognitive development theory is based on stages that children go through as they grow that lead them to actively learn new information. Cognitive change occurs with schemes that children and adults go through to make sense of what is happening around them. The change that occurs is activity based when the child is young and later in life correlates to mental thinking. Piaget’s stages of cognitive development start from birth to adulthood and it begins with the sensorimotor stage, a child from birth to the age of 2 years old learns and thinks by doing and figuring out how something works.
Many parents and teachers use operant social learning to encourage good behavior in children. We learn socially acceptable or desirable behavior through being rewarded and getting punished for bad behavior (Grieve, et al. 2005). Another way that social learning occurs is through observation, which is, imitating or watching the behaviors of other and observing the consequences of it. There are four components of observational learning which are attention, retention or memory, initiation or reproduction and motivation (Grieve, et al.
Clearly, eye-tracking studies provide a useful and interesting avenue for research on development of a child’s helping and other prosocial behaviours. Many recent studies are looking into factors that can benefit children in the socialization of these helping behaviours. A study conducted by Over and Carpenter found that 18 month old children were more likely to act spontaneously prosocial after being primed with photographs promoting positive relationships (2009). In the study, after seeing photos of household objects with two dolls positioned in an affiliative manner, infants were more likely to help out an experimenter when items were dropped, and did so autonomously. These findings suggest that children who are surrounded by positive associations are more likely to help those around
At this level, “individuals want to maintain the affection and approval of friends and relatives by being a “good person”, trustworthy, loyal, respectful, helpful and nice” (Berk, 2014). Finally, the “Postconventional Theory, is where children define their own rights and question society about certain circumstances that are going on in the world by trying to look for a medium in good and bad situations (2014). Analyze Referencing from the book, it shows how children become more in tune with their surroundings and grow into a human being with their own moral reasoning ’s and like behaviors about circumstances that involve the good and the bad in life (2014). Going forward, harmonizing with Kohlberg's theory, were similar to Piaget and Skinner's theory. He makes a point on how individuals who are advanced in their moral understanding have a beneficial high standard to contemplate what is right and wrong and how to solve difficult situations with an ethical understanding (2014).
They using hand to make finger’s movement and they have a freedom how to use it. If they continue play with this toy they can make their own story. Hand puppets help children to improve communication and social skills. Hand puppets are an ideal springboard for developing speaking and listening skills. Children often communicate more easily with puppets, giving them confidence to express their ideas and feelings.
In general, playing is the mutual popular activity among children because playing is fun and flexible, it can be personal, with the presence of others or with the social presence of others (De Kort & Ijsselsteijn, 2008). The researchers and experts believe that the power of play has an important psychological role in children’s development, as reinforced by Sutton-Smith (1993, p. 279) using “play as progress” and “play ethos” by Peter Smith (1988, p. 166) both cited in Pellegrini (1995). Goldstein (2012) stated that pretend play is one of the common types of interactive social play among 2- to 6-years-old children. He also mentioned that as children grow, the nature and function of pretend play will also change from simple imitation to more
Props and creative thinking materials like clay and finger painting are among the few activities we will explore through a creative prism. CS II a: Head, Shoulders, Knees, and Toes Musical - This activity helps the development of fine and gross motor skills such as hand-eye coordination,balance, bodily awareness, brain and language development. CS II b: Age appropriate puzzle and matching games- These activity enable children to think collectively with their peers. It encourages cooperation and team-work. It allows children whom are more reclusive to move forward through sound participation.
4) offers the following definition for sensory play also known as ‘Messy Play’ by some Early Years practitioners. “Sensory play provides opportunities for children and young people to use all their senses or opportunities to focus play to encourage the use of one particular sense”. The PBS (2013-2015) also recommend that “spending time stimulating children’s senses aids the children to develop cognitively, linguistically, socially and emotionally, physically and creatively” (PBS 2013-2015). Duffy (2004, p, 1) stated that children are “being creative when they use materials in new ways, combine previously unconnected materials and make discoveries that are new to them, and messy play enables children to do all these