Critical Discourse Analysis, a field of linguistics, specifically aims at searching and identifying traces of cultural and ideological meanings in spoken as well as written texts (O’ Halloran, 2003, p.1). It is thus a powerful tool to analyze institutional, political, social and other types of discourses in order to bring out the covert ideology present in the specific discourses and also highlights the overt ideas. It is a linguistic tool which beautifully brings out the relationship between language and power and inequalities in social relationships. The present study aims at applying Fairclough 3D model of Critical Discourse Analysis on the beautiful poem “Anticlockwise” by Kishwer Naheed. The focus of the study is to investigate how the speaker has manipulated her feminist agenda through the language and how the appropriate choice of lexical items has enabled her to advocate the case
It is the vital way of communication performed among humans, has an important role in “defining and expressing the world that is around us.” It is how we send out a message to other people. Language is further defined as “the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and language is any specific example of such a system.” This paper aims to investigate the cultural aspect of communication which is referred to as pragmatics. Cutting (2008) “describes pragmatics as a field of linguistics which examines the language and language variations according to the contexts in which they are used. One of the most prominent contexts of the language is the cultural environment in which the language is used”. La Castro (2012) “states that actions such as asking someone to close the door or ordering coffee at a coffee shop are closely related
On the basis of the above authors are then attracted to discuss issues related to sociolinguistics, usability and scope of sociolinguistics. Sociolinguistics is strongly associated with the language (language) and society (society) as well as the function of language in society itself. Language is defined as verbal communication tools used by the public. Society is a group or several groups of people who share a particular purpose. Sociolinguistic born because of discontent against structural linguistics linguists who study only the language in terms of its structural ignoring social factors in its analysis.
Integral in this theory is the interactionist hypothesis of SLA, and task-based language learning (Long 1996; Skehan 1998; Ellis 2003), which bridges the gap between L2 acquisition and language methodology. In this theory, it is typically grammar that has been under investigation, as it is focused upon under the combination of interaction and the cognitive processes of the learners. However, sociocultural studies do not consider the purposes of interaction to just be that of grammar acquisition, and thus is additionally well suited for the study of pragmatic development. The assumption here is that language has the double function of a means for communication and as a tool for thinking. Kasper cites three theoretical sources that have been adopted to examine pragmatic development under the sociocultural perspective, which are 1) the activity as the structuring force of L2 use and development, 2) the Zone of Proximal Development, and 3) Neo-Vygotskyan views of different types of participation and apprenticeship (p. 516).
In a passage that appears to be fallacious, it may be difficult to determine out of context what means the author intended for the term used. Sometimes the accusation of Fallacy is unjustly levelled at a passage that was intended by its author to make a point missed by the critic perhaps even to make a joke. We should bear such unavoidable complications in mind as we apply the analysis of fallacious argument to actual discourse. Our logical standards should be high, but our application of them to arguments in ordinary life should also be generous and fair. How many different kinds of mistake in arguments, different fallacies may be distinguish?
According to Houdebine, these meta-linguistic productions belong to fictive norms, and she defines them as judgments which are not supported by a previous academical discourse or a traditional grammatical perspective, therefore, they can be described as subjective or practical ideals (2002:20). Moreover, they are typically articulated around arguments based on affective, aesthetic, historical, and moral arguments (Remyssen 2011: 49-55). For the later analysis, the conceptualization of fictive norms shall focus on affective, aesthetic and unsubstantiated arguments. Moreover, as many users are not Walloon speakers themselves, the analysis of the projection of fictive qualities to the language will also enable us to observe the construction of an archetypal speaker in the imaginary of members of online social networks, as linguistic qualities are often a pretext to adopt a discourse regarding the community which speaks it and its
Hence, pragmatics is usually associated with utterance and speaker meaning. As well, the ability to use language appropriately for comprehend, construct, and convey meaning in the social and cultural circumstances, which requires choose and recognize the forms of utterance in a given context is the pragmatic competence. It is the key to effective communication in a second language (Taguchi, 2009). In other words, it is all about communicating appropriately in context so is the main issue for EFL learners. More recently, pragmatic competence is considered to be “an understanding of the relationship between form and context that enables us, accurately and appropriately, to express and interpret intended meaning” (Murray, 2010, p. 293).
As Richardson (2007) explains, researchers who adopt this definition of discourse ‘assume that language is used to mean something and to do something’ and that this ‘meaning and doing’ is linked to the context of its usage. This view of language as action and social behaviour is emphasized in CDA, which sees discourse – the use of language in speech and writing – as a form of social practice (Van Dijk, 2011). Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is ‘a theory and method analysing the way that individuals and institutions use language’ (Richardson, 2007). Critical discourse analysts focus on ‘relations between discourse, dominance, and social inequality’ (Van Dijk, 1993) and how discourse (re)creates and maintains these relations of dominance and inequality’. Due to their concern with the analysis of the ‘often opaque relationships’ between discourse practices and wider social and cultural structures, CDA practitioners take an ‘obvious socio-political stance’ (Richardson, 2007).
Lexicographers study words , their meanings and their histories . Grammarians are concerned with the words and how they are put together to form sentences and spoken utterances . And Discourse Analysts study the ways sentences and utterances go together to make texts and interactions and how they fit into our social world . Therefore , the term discourse analysis may be defined in different ways and its meaning will vary according