In the first two phases, bees exploit the sources by making local search in the neighborhood of the solutions which are generated randomly. In the scout bee phase, solutions that are not beneficial anymore for search progress are abandoned, and new solutions are determined. This algorithm is the basis of the research work which is discussed in detail in the upcoming chapters. In , Lin and Huang presents an algorithm based on artificial bee colony algorithm hybridized with
CHAPTER 3 Methods and Procedures This chapter presents the methodology and procedures used to determine the renal protective property of crude extract in stingless bee propolis. Research Methodology Experimental methods and techniques will be used for the determination of the renal protective property. Systematic procedures will be observed in the determination of the renal protective property of crude extract in stingless bee propolis. Chemical tests will be used to perform to determine present compounds. Biological and histopathological testing will be conducted to determine its renal protective property in high levels of creatinine by Gentamicin induced in rats.
2.5 Ant Colony Search Algorithm Ant Colony Search Algorithm (ACSA) is a population-based approach for solving combinatorial optimization problems that is inspired by the foraging behaviour of real ants and their inherent ability to find the shortest path from a food source to their nest (Dorigo and Stutzle 2004). ACSA is the result of research on computational intelligence approaches to combinatorial optimization originally conducted by Dr. Marco Dorigo, in collaboration with Alberto Colorni and Vittorio Maniezzo. The fundamental approach underlying ACSA is an iterative process in which a population of simple ant agents repeatedly construct candidate solutions; this construction process is probabilistically guided by heuristic information
Memory is the process of encoding, storing and retrieving and also includes the ability later recall information and experiences gained in the past within the brain. It can be also described as the process of maintaining information overtime. It is also said that “our lives are the sum of our memories”, which gives out an idea of how important memory is to a human brain. Everything we use in our day today lives depends on memories which are the past experiences we went through and it is the ability to remember our past. Memory is a significant component when it comes to learning.
Commonly navigable structures and understandings have to be set up within systems so that the information can be shared in different spacetime. This is a process which could be described as the organisation of memory.” (Upward, 2000). It during this dimension of the record continuum where a record joins multiple other records deriving from multiple sequences of actions undertaken for multiple purposes (Reed, 2000). The records may be kept for such purposes as evidence of a business transaction, individual or corporate memory. Basically, the organise dimension is there to ensure that records are available over time exceeding the immediate environments of
The prefrontal lobe is responsible for the planning of future functions, estimation, decision-making, and control of bodily movements. Moreover, it controls bodily feeling, spatial orientation and body image. The occipital lobe is responsible for the processing of visual perceptions and the temporal lobe for audio perceptions. Furthermore, the deep structures of the temporal lobe, hippocampus and amygdala, process memory, learning, emotions and feelings. The frontal lobe, together with the limbic brain compartment located in a deep brain compartment, establish the fluent mixing of emotional and intellectual brain functions.
Information behaviour is a wide concept within a persons everyday life. Within information behaviour you have information seeking , this has the aim to meet a need solve a problem and increase an understanding in a persons life. The idea of information behaviour is very closely linked with information use and information need. Information needs are a part of a overall information behaviour and can only be understood in the wider context of the use of information in work, home, study or in life generally. Information behiour can be split into different forms of models.
These agents may be computer programs, robots, or even humans. They can be used to solve problems that are difficult or impossible for an individual agent or a monolithic system to solve. A cooperative multi-agent system (CMAS) is composed of a set of autonomous agents that interact with one another in a shared environment. In order to successfully interact, these agents in MAS will thus need the ability to cooperate, coordinate, and negotiate with other resident agents, in much the same manner we cooperate, coordinate, and negotiate with other people in our daily lives. One fundamental property of an agent in a multi-agent system is its ability of adaptively adjusting its behaviors in response to other agents in order to achieve effective coordination on desirable outcomes since the outcome not only depends on the action it takes but also the actions were taken by other agents that it interacts with.
Tyrrell used automated target-selection and data-recording in guessing the location of a future point of light. Whateley Carington experimented on the paranormal cognition of drawings of randomly selected words, using participants from across the globe. J. Hettinger studied the ability to retrieve information associated with token objects. In the 1960s, with the development of cognitive psychology and humanistic psychology, parapsychologists became more interested in the cognitive components of ESP and its role in psychological life. Memory, for instance, was offered as a better model of psi than perception.
Arguably, attention has to be paid to the visual field, during which the brain picks out specific parts and evaluates the importance of them, beginning visual processing (Tsotsos, Culhane, Yan Kei Wai et al, 1995). Anderson (2008) states that “five strategies are used in the brains visual processing: population coding, functional localisation, parallel processing, hierarchical processing and association”. Visual processing begins at the eye, where using its ganglion cells, the retina interprets an image. Within the retina, there are 125 million rods, which interpret dim lights, and 6 million cones, which deal with colour (Martin, Carlson, Buskist, 2013),