These 2 extract are extracted from the story Little Red Riding Hood. Extract 1 is in the format of a drama script, extract 2 is in the format of story. I choose these 2 register because they contain more direct conversions and conversions bring words to life. That is interesting to me. The mood system is the particular grammatical structures that are closely associated with the 3 basic functions, which are declaratives, imperatives and interrogatives.
Linguistic knowledge and non-linguistic knowledge interact in equivalent fashion as listeners create a mental representation of what they have heard. One way of examining the relationship among components of L2 listening ability is by comparing two important types of processes involved in L2 listening. These processes have usually been categorized as bottom-up and top-down processes, with a combination of the two leading to successful comprehension. Bottom-up and top-down processes are applied to conceptualize L2 listening (Goh, 2000; Wilson, 2003; Vandergrift, 2007, Prince, 2012). The application of linguistic knowledge in comprehension is usually termed bottom-up processing, whereby the sounds, words, clauses and sentences of a passage are decoded in a fairly linear fashion to elicit meaning (Rost, 2002).
and others (1981:95) also used such technique, additionally applying ‘high and low lexical diversity’ to the South Welsh and RP accent, with high lexical diversity referring to frequent use of regional specific lexis. In my study, the participant will conduct both Scouse and RP lexical diversity to a high degree, using Scouse features such as lenition; defined by Honeybone (2007:18) as ‘underlying plosives realized as affricates and fricatives, for example, expect is articulated [exspɛxt] and stop is articulated [stɒɸ]’. Distinctive Scouse features such as the long vowel [u:] that replaces Standard English (spoken by the RP speaker) [ʊ] in ‘book’ and ‘look’ (Watson, 2007:358) will be employed by both Scouse speakers. Lexical features that the high-diversity speaker will employ in the passage include objective singular ‘me’ in replacement for the standard possessive determiner ‘my’, for example: ‘that’s me book’, ‘me mam’ (Britain, 2007: 96). It is also important to note variability in RP, with Hughes and Trudgill (1997:37) commenting ‘members of the upper social class are likely to have open final vowels in words like University, close to cardinal [ɛ].’ This will be accounted for in the high-diversity recording of the RP speaker.
Gestures Feelings, attitudes and emotions are more efficiently conveyed through body language than through speech. Gestures and emotions are closely linked to each other, so,, the body language becomes the window to a person 's mind!". According to the business consultant and psychological coach , James Borg, there are three main elements in any communication message: body language, voice and words. Albert Mehrabian , psychology professor at UCLA, continued Borg 's theory by adding a value to the three elements : 55 percent of the meaning in any message comes from the visual body language (gestures, posture, facial expressions), 38 percent is derived from the nonverbal element of speech (vocal- the way in which the words are delivered:
Stream segregation in music cognition In music cognition, stream segregation is known as melodic fission(Dowling., 1973). As stream segregation is all about sound, it is no surprise that the concept is studied vigorously in in its application to music. The research performed has shown that, asides from a faster sequence of tones, there are multiple ways to separate auditory streams. Timbre
In different cultures, body language is explained in different ways. It can be used to communicate with others through micro facial expressions, gestures, postures and hair and clothing styles. (World Book 2010, 435). Facial expressions refer to “the act of communicating a mood, attitude, opinion, feeling, or other message by contracting the muscles of the face.” (Givens 2002, 18). Dr. Paul Ekman, who is “a professor of psychology at the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF)”, reveals that facial expressions are able to display six basic sentiments including cheer, sorrow, rage, fright, aversion or astonishment by controlling the movements of eyebrows, eyes, nose, lip, cheeks, and chin.
Roger Brown has drawn a distinction between weak linguistic relativity, where language limits thought, and strong linguistic relativity, where language determines thought. The idea that linguistic structure influences the cognition of language users has bearings on the fields of anthropological linguistics, psychology, psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics, cognitive science, linguistic anthropology, sociology of language and philosophy of language, and it has been the subject of extensive studies in all of these fields. The idea of linguistic influences on thought has also captivated the minds of authors and creative artists inspiring numerous ideas in literature, in the creation of artificial languages and even forms of therapy such as neuro-linguistic
Speech Compression Using Wavelet Packets Tree Nodes LPC Encoding and Best Tree Encoding (BTE) Features ABSTRACT Over the past several years there has been considerable attention focused on compression and enhancement of speech signals. This interest is progressed towards the development of new techniques capable of producing good quality speech at the output. Speech compression is a process of converting human speech into efficient encoded representations that can be decoded to produce a close approximation of the original signal. This paper deals with the problem of speech compression. It proposes the application of Best Tree Encoding (BTE) to encode the wavelet packet Best Tree Structure into a vector of 4 elements.
In many scholars’ systems (Huang 1988, Li 1990, 1995, 1999, Huang et al 1997; among others), such a structure is labeled as ‘resultative compound’ because the combination of the main verb and the result-denoting part is so coherent that it behaves like a compound. The state buyu-structure in Zhu’s categorization is also analyzed as a complex or phrasal form of resultative compounds because a state or a degree is considered as a kind of result as well. For instance, the da-ku ‘beat-cry’ in (1a) is a resultative compound, in which the da ‘beat’ is the main verb and ku ‘cry’ denotes the result of beating. (1c), on the contrary, represents a phrasal structure with the insertion of -de. The fact that Lisi has been crying for the whole afternoon also represents the result of ‘Zhangsan’s beating’.
SPEECH PERCEPTION SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH COCHLEAR IMPLANT USING McGurk PARADIGM Abstract Introduction: The perception of speech includes integration of both audio visual modalities. The way of assessing the multimodal speech perception is McGurk paradigm, where alteration in final perception of incongruent audible and visual production of utterances is noticed. Need: Compare the extent of audiovisual integration and speech perception in children with cochlear implant enrolled in different auditory rehabilitation programs using the McGurk paradigm. Aim and objectives: To investigate if there exists any difference in the visual biasing of the auditory perception and speech perception in children with cochlear implants enrolled in aural and oral aural communication approaches using the McGurk paradigm. Methodology: Twenty children (mean age ± SD, 4.5 ± 1.82) with cochlear implant in aural communication approach were compared against twenty children (mean age ± SD, 5.36 ± 1.75) in oral aural communication approach.