Aim: The aim of this project is to determine the ear's ability to allow us to perceive the pitch of sounds by detection of the wave's frequencies, the loudness of sound by detection of the wave's amplitude and the timbre of the sound by the detection of the various frequencies that make up a complex sound wave. Introduction: Understanding how humans hear is a complex subject involving the fields of physiology, psychology and acoustics. The ear consists of three basic parts - the outer ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. Each part of the ear serves a specific purpose in the task of detecting and interpreting sound. The outer ear serves to collect and channel sound to the middle ear.
Leaving at least 1 cm of caudal and dorsal septum for nasal tip support, the septal cartilage is then sharply scored and incised. On the opposite of the septum a submucoperichondrial plane is then developed. Septum is incised in an anterior to posterior manner using Jansen-Middleton punch, once the septal cartilage and bone is isolated from the mucosa. All deviated portions of the bone and cartilage is removed with a twisting motion in anterior-posterior axis, using a Takahashi forceps. The endoscope is placed, either between the mucosal flaps or within the nasal cavity throughout the procedure, to ensure correction of all septal deformities.
The Ostiomeatal Complex Overview The paranasal sinuses are believed to assist with several mechanical and physiological functions. These include humidifying inspired air, lightening the skull, regulating intranasal pressure, enhancing olfaction and adding resonance to the voice. Additionally, it has been postulated that the sinuses produce mucous that is free of environmental contaminants. This mucus is then secreted into the superior and middle meatus in order to mitigate the contamination present in the mucous that is in contact with the air and its contaminants. These functions would be compromised in instances where the paranasal sinuses are filled with fluid and are unable to be drained.
The narrow gap between the anterior crux of helix and tragus is deficient of cartilage and comprises of dense fibrous tissue, known as incisura terminalis. This serves as a site for endaural incision to access the temporal bone. (21,22) External Auditory Canal The continuity of auricular cartilage into the ear canal forms the lateral one-third cartilaginous portion of the external auditory canal (EAC), and is covered by thick
Headgear is an extra-oral appliance which makes use of cervical or cranial anchorage to apply forces to the jaws or teeth, with the purpose of growth modification or teeth movement. PRINCIPLES IN THE USE OF HEAD GEARS The following factor should be considered when planning the use of head gears. 1. Centre of reisitance of the dentition: The centre of resistance for a molar is usually at the mid root region. Forces applied at the centre of resistance causes bodily movement.if forces are applied below the centre of resistance then it will cause a distal crown tipping but when applied above the centre of resistance, causes distal root tipping.
For example, when producing the vowel [i], we raise and advance the body of the tongue with a tense gesture. Whereas, the vowel [a] is made with the tongue lowered and a lax gesture. Unlike vowels, consonants are made by a partial or complete
DISCUSSION When we speak, vibrations from our vocal folds travel to the throat and mouth through air passage, while some get transmitted and conducted by the bones in the neck and head. It travels to the temporal bone, which is situated at the sides and base of the skull. The temporal bone transmits the vibrations to the basilar membrane in the inner ear and tiny bundles of hair, each finely tuned to detect sounds at different frequencies, transmit the vibrations to the brain for decoding. The inner ear responds to these just like any other vibrations, turning them into electrical signals and sending them to the brain. Whenever we speak, our inner ear is stimulated by internal vibrations in our bones and the sound coming out of our mouth traveling through the air into the ears.
- Velar bursts are concentrated in the mid-frequency range. In the shutting and release phases, the whole vocal tract can act as the filter according to Johnson (2005) . This is because the source—either voicing or aspiration—is located at the glottis and must pass through the rest of the vocal tract. But the shape of the vocal tract is basically determined by the location of the stop constriction. - Labial stops lower formants (especially F2 and F3).
Diagnosis: clinical and radiographic findings reveal a loss of tooth structure with pulp exposure. Treatment objectives: to maintain pulp vitality and restore normal aesthetics and function. Injured lips, tongue, and gingiva should be examined for tooth fragments. 3) Crown/root fracture Definition: an enamel, dentin, and cementum fracture with or without pulp exposure. Diagnosis: Clinical findings usually reveal a mobile coronal fragment attached to the gingiva with or without a pulp exposure.
Keywords: Rectangular Cross Section Muffler, FEA Acoustic Module- wave 1-D, Sound Transmission loss, 1. INTRODUCTION The UK based term muffler (silencer in English, or back box in Irish English) is a device for reducing the amount of noise emitted by the exhaust of an internal combustion engine .Mufflers are mostly used to reduce noise related with internal combustion engine exhausts, high pressure gas or steam vents, compressors and fans. These examples lead to the conclusion that a Muffler allows the passage of fluid while at the same time restricting the free passage of sound. The greatest source of noise which disturbs people and creates impact on their environment comes from transport vehicles . The huge increase in mobility achieved by technological development in the last century accompanied by high background noise levels, particularly due to road traffic, has become a feature of our society.