Writing notes by hand also helps students retain and remember information (“Pros and Cons”). Handwriting also assists students by being able to write notes in their own words, which results in them retaining more information. Writing in cursive also helps with speed, legibility, and writing words correctly (“Dower”). In an article in Psychology Today, Dr. William Klemm said “Cursive writing helps train the brain to integrate visual and tactile information, and fine motor dexterity,” (“Pros and Cons”). Writing in cursive can also help people with learning disabilities.
So British pronunciation is the acceptable correct pronunciation in English Second Language. The overall aim of teaching English Second Language is to develop learners’ communicative skills for meaningful interaction in the multicultural society. Therefore, English need conscious attention specifically on pronunciation of words, not just a concern to English teachers but all subject teachers. Thus, responsibility is required to assist learners, so that they could be able to read words correctly or effectively in all subjects. During my SBS experience, the researcher observed learners reading words with wrong pronunciations or mispronouncing some words.
These assessments must be reliable and valid, and they must also be efficient to teachers who administer them. Therefore, the best types of assessments to gauge student’s reading fluency are quick, easy to offer, and repeated throughout the year. The two types of assessments for accuracy and automaticity discussed in this article are Informal Reading Inventories (IRI) and Curriculum-Based Measurement and Oral Reading Fluency (CBM/ORF.) The fluency assessment for prosody discussed in this article are modeling, coaching feedback and fluency rubrics. IRI’s are used for teachers to assess student’s reading of word lists and passages to see how fluently they read, although most teachers do not like to use IRI’s because they are extremely time consuming especially if there are multiple struggling readers being assessed.
B) Explicit vs. implicit correction In explicit correction the student is provided with the correct form or a suggestion what the error is, whereas implicit treatment of errors aims at actively involving the learners in the process of identifying and correcting their own errors. Implicit corrective practices in written communication involve, simple underlining, marginal description, encircling, writing comments on the margins (Hashimoto, 2004 and Corpuz 2011), after which students have to locate and correct errors themselves (Hadla, 2006), or the use of correction codes. The technique of Error Correction Code involves underlining the mistakes and providing a correction code that includes symbols and abbreviations to indicate the nature of the error, for instance, ‘the teacher may use the symbol “Sp” to refer to “wrong spelling”, “WW” for “wrong word” (Wang, 2010:194) or the symbol // to indicate that a new line or paragraph is needed. The Error Correction Code has a double focus: to inform the L2 student that an error has been made and inform on the kind of error made (Hendrickson, 1984). Implicit correction practices also involve writing down the errors to be corrected later on and/or providing oral feedback in oral communication activities.
They can produce a meaningful text from the misunderstanding. If teachers don’t help children when they make a mistake if they’re not there to correct them they will make these errors forever. Miscues become more sophisticated when the reader understands the text better. Miscues help build and make children better at reading. Kidwatching teachers use miscues to help analyze young readers.
Teaching assistant can explain what to do if children can’t read a word, or don’t understand a word: They should teach them to break words down, look for little words inside big words, look for base or root words, prefixes, or suffixes etc; to keep reading or rereading to see if they can get a sense of the definition from the text. Explaining and clarifying should lead to better understanding and gaining confidence in order to better literacy
Students, who learn English, learn not only to comprehend audio or texts but also to produce pieces of writing to communicate and support ideas. Therefore, managing writing skills has become very important as part of the management of academic skills. Corrective feedback is considered one important tool in the writing process. For teachers providing feedback is a tough task and for students it is a constant concern as it is meant to help them improve in their productive skills. This literature considers types of feedback, efficacy measured
However, according to the results of this research oral vocabulary plays a more significant role than alphabetic knowledge when learning to read. An efficacy study of two school-based reading intervention program has found that the Oral language program resulted in improved vocabulary and grammatical skills while the Phonology + Reading (P+R) program resulted in improved decoding skills (Bowyer-Crane, et al., 2007). This study demonstrates the use of phonology and reading improves decoding skills, which is one of the main deficits in the phonological deficit theory. As such, phonology and reading program should also be incorporated when implementing an intervention to improve reading. More recent research has introduced a self-teaching model to develop phonological decoding in children with dyslexia.
There was two distinctive writing styles that was taught in my English class. The critique help me understand the writing styles that were trying to be taught to me more efficiently. Having a better understanding eventually led to me having better grades on my essays. I also could apply the things I learned from the critique to other things other than the essays we wrote in class. It also helped better my presentation skills and analyzation skills.
Aural means related to sense of hearing and oral related to verbal communication. Surely when the student is getting better in both listening and speaking they will reach communicative competence. Communicative competence refers to the level of language learning that enables language users to convey their message to others and to understand others’ messages within specific context (Hymes, 1972). Of course to reach this competence, both listening and speaking improvement is really needed. The Aural-Oral approach is very effective to be implemented in English Language Teaching in case to build communicative competence of student.