Therefore, this paper will focus on factors in which violence and aggression stems from external rewards specifically scholarships as well as how different social classes affect the external motivation of competitive athletes resulting to aggression within sports. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Motivation in itself is the force or influence of someone to do something; there are two key factors of motivation namely, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In the sports setting athletes are intrinsically motivated when they engage in an activity for the
Therefore, finding an explanation through psychology, for the different specific reactions that human beings exhibit is important. Social psychology is an important sector of psychology that takes interpersonal relationships into consideration. Over the years, many theories have been developed to aid in explaining human behavior, especially ones that administer social experiences. The main focus of this assignment is the analysis of the cognitive dissonance theory in social psychology. Cognitive dissonance theory attempts to explain the human behavior through cognition, in which individuals always look for stability in their attitudes and behaviors (Festinger, 1985).
In sports such as soccer, baseball, tennis, basketball, along with others, these activities require fast reflexes in order to win the game. Scientific studies have been done on the correlation between reaction time and athletic ability, and according to the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, they’ve proven that the lower the reaction time, the stronger the athletic ability. Playing sports generally also have been proven to increase reaction times and visuospatial intelligence. Visuospatial intelligence is the ability to accurately perceive the visual world around you. This statement furthermore proves that playing sports gradually increases your reaction time as it trains you to have spatial awareness and observant.
Social leaning outlook (Bandura, 1961) states that the real performance of aggressive act is dependent upon the person’s assessment of reinforcement that will be presented on the bases of the responses which may be making to a given situation. Aggression has become as an integral part of contemporary sport society. Instructors have become sensitive to a players caliber to withstand and reply to coercion. It is comply that some players progress upwards primarily because of their ability to fight. Toughness and willingness to fight have become important in establishing a positive identity.
This is because people want to have the feeling they belong to a group. If your football team wins, your self-esteem automatically increases which is preserved by social comparison, which is when the profit of being part of a group is bigger than then profit of not being part of a group. In order to increase our self-image we heighten the status of the group to which we belong. For example, Germany is the world cup champion in football. We can also increase our self-esteem by holding prejudice against the out-group, for example, Brazil is not as good as Germany in football.
Wann and Trail both noted that most of these motives are based on social and psychological needs of consumers. Wann’s eight basic motives for sport spectating are listed below and these eight basic motives are used in this thesis to analyze and categorize the motivational factors of the fans of JYP and the fans in Football Malaysian League. (Shank
Social domain According to Coakley (2011), in this dissertation I explore aspects of this social domain in sport and PE. Specifically, I try to contribute to scholarly knowledge about how coaches and PE teachers navigate and address the social domain. I refer to the social domain or ‘the social’ in this dissertation as a site that consists of self-oriented and interactive social skills/ behaviors. I assume these skills/behaviors are based on underlying values (beliefs) and norms. Although individuals may know what they define as desirable/positive social behavior/skills and as undesirable/ negative social behavior/skills.
Therefore, when assessing the effects of goal setting in sport, competition plays a big role in the outcome. Locke and Latham (1985) suggested that competition can be seen as a form of goal setting, which was due to two reasons; (1) the goal is the performance of another person or persons, and (2) the goal is dynamic rather than static since it changes due to other competitor’s performances (Locke & Latham, 1985). A goal is defined as the object or the aim of an action that an individual is trying to accomplish (Locke et al., 1981). A goal is a target, or a specific standard or an accomplishment that a person strives to attain (Vealey, 2007). Goal setting is one of the most commonly used and most effective performance enhancing strategies in psychology (Burton et al., 2001; Burton et al., 1998).
Terry as cited by Cabanlet (2008) stated that is “performance is a translated athletic potential”. The translated athletic potential to performance depends on the smooth interaction of the three factors namely the coach, athlete and situation. It also stated that “smooth inter- action of the three… bridges the gap between potential and performance as illustrated above coaching facilities/ equipment, training programs are some factors that could affect the athlete’s performance. Everyone must have full opportunities, in accordance with his national tradition of sports, for practicing Physical Education and sports, developing his physical fitness and attaining level of achievement in sports which corresponds to his talents. Thus, the practice of Physical Education and sports is a fundamental right for all (Flores, 2010).
Media and its Stereotypes Stereotyping is when you are being judgmental about a person or a group who are different from your race or religion. These judgments are based upon your opinions. The importance of stereotype in the media is on the selection or representation on how media highlight events and topics. “...a fixed, over generalized belief about a particular group or class of people.” (Cardwell, 1996). In the perspective of psychology, stereotyping is when you critic a person or his capabilities without knowing him/her.