1 Introduction With the growing awareness of the rights of disabilities intourism and travel sector as well as government, accessible tourism becomes one of the potential trends of tourism in future. Disabilities refer to "people who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments". (The UN Convention on the Right of Person with Disabilities, 2006); while accessible Tourism is known as Barrier-free Tourism. According to the European Network for Accessible Tourism (ENAT) in 2009,accessible tourism means a form of tourism with servicesand facilities including physical environment, information, communication and transportation forthe ease of people who have special needsin their enjoyment of leisure time without any barriers. Furthermore, accessible tourism covers information such as gathering and accommodation.
According to Casey (2000) the Social Construction of Technology comprises of the following; Interpretive flexibility; this refers to the way in which different groups of people involved in a technology have different understanding of that technology including the understanding of its technical characteristics(Hinduja, 2003). The design of technology is an open process that can produce various outcomes and is dependent on the social circumstance of development (Hollinger, 1991). This distinguishes SCOT from other constructivist approach in the history of technology (Keel, 2005). Secondly it comprises of relevant social group; "all members of a certain social group share the same set of ideas attached to a specific artifact" (McKemmish and Rodney, 2008). These groups are the agents in the agency centered approach whose actions manifest the meanings the impact to artifacts and can be identified as Actors (Schultz, 2002).
Socio-cultural dimension Although consistently associated with the environment, sustainable tourism development can't take place unless culture and society are also assessed in management approaches. Indeed, sustainable tourism substructures have to safeguard a destination’s socio-cultural features, which include a wide variety of traditions, social rights and benefits, lifestyles, heritage, employment, art, and customs. Although equal in significance to the other two pillars of sustainable tourism, the social aspect obtain less concern in sustainable tourism debates, possibly as a result of being intangible. Social sustainability causes impacts on the community's socio-cultural fabric and emphasizes local residents' participation in tourism development. When tourism generates disharmony amongst society, the subsequent results on the culture can be long-term and produce severe effects on the host
An integrated approach to sustainable tourism is primarily evolving with community based tourism Addressing environmental and social concerns through policies, practices and taking initiatives at the ground level may reduce the impact of global warming by enhancing the sustainability of the mount tourism. The environmental sustainability focuses on the overall viability and health of ecological systems. Mountain Tourism will take its own course of time to be completely sustainable as every activity leaves a carbon footprint .The tourism industry has its own share of positive and negative impacts, but the mountain tourism can prosper and work towards becoming more sustainable by following the environmental practices.Therefore,the research topic of the ‘Issues, understanding and interpretation of sustainable tourism development in Shandong Province, China’ have been chosen by the researcher. .3.11The pilot study ‘A pilot study need not be a “scale model” of the planned main-stage evaluation, but should address the main uncertainties that have been identified in the development
Resilience thinking integrates the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (Pisano, 2012). The Social-ecological system considers system thinking as a whole in the study of resilience to food insecurity (Adger, 2000). As it has been already stated, the concept of resilience necessitates to deal with complex systems and focuses on the relationships within the systems (FAO, 2014) because of interdependencies between the human domain and the biophysical domain (Walker and Salt, 2006, cited from Pisano, 2012). In the framework of these domains, resilience is essentially is closely related to theory of systems thinking. As Constas & Barrett (2013) have demonstrated, the concept of resilience makes the most sense when it is
There is no other complex of reflexive behaviors and ideas that follow this development as tourism and sightseeing. This argument that MacCannell talked about is convincing because they add to why tourism is connected to modernity in the sense that tourism is an essential or necessary component of the contemporary
Urry proposed nine characteristics of tourist’s gaze, namely: 1. Tourism is a leisure activity. Being said that, although it is a leisure activity, it still regulates over a period of time and is organized within particular places. 2. Tourist relationships begin from a movement of people to and their stay in various destinations.
Rural Tourism Development : Localism and Cultural Change by E. Wanda George, Heather Mair, Donald G. Reid, volume 27, Channel View Publications, 2009 Rural tourism represents a merging of perhaps two of the most influential yet contradictory features of modern life. Not only are the forces of economic, social, cultural, environmental and political change working to redefine rural spaces the world over, but broad global transformations in consumption and transportation patterns are reshaping leisure behaviour and travel. For those concerned with both the nature of change in rural areas and tourism development, the dynamics and impacts of integrating these two dramatic shifts are not well known but yet are becoming increasingly provocative discourses for study. This book links changes at the local, rural community level to broader, more structural considerations of globalization and allows for a deeper, more theoretically sophisticated consideration of the various forces and features of rural tourism development. While Canadian in content, the cases and discussions presented in this book can be considered generally relevant to any rural region, continentally and globally, that has undertaken or is considering rural tourism
Literature Review Sustainable development emphasizes a holistic, equitable and far-sighted approach to decision making at all levels. It rests on integration and a balanced consideration of social, economic and environmental goals and objectives in both public and private decision-making. This concept of sustainability is very important in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and this was first acknowledged at the Earth Summit in 1992. The vulnerabilities of SIDS arise from a number of physical, socio-economic and environmental factors. SIDS small size, limited resources, geographical dispersion and isolation from markets, place them at a disadvantage economically and prevent economies of scale.
In this background, ecotourism can be and alternative form of tourism that promises to minimize negative impacts of mass tourism while providing sustainable income to communities. According to Ceballos-Lascurain ecotourism is "environmentally responsible travel and