He shows that both a strict liability and a fault-based regime do not achieve a socially optimal prevention level but negligence seems more efficient than strict liability. Other contributions confirm the relationship between uncertainty and care level inefficiency. For instance, Franzoni (2012) considers the case of ambiguous risk where ambiguity is graded because of the existence of alternative distributions on the accidents likelihood. He analyses unilateral and bilateral accident models. He shows that, under strict liability, damage increases with rising ambiguity.
In which including akaike information criterion(AIC), schwarz criterion(SBIC) and hannan-quinnlnformation criterion(HQIC)..And the three variable’s calculation formula is as follows: AIC=-2 ln(L) + 2 k BIC=-2 ln(L) + ln(n)*k HQIC=-2 ln(L) + ln(ln(n))*k Where L is the maximum likelihood, n is the number of the data, K is the number of variables. Frankly speaking,when the values of these indicators are small enough, meaning that it corresponds to the lag order is the best one. 3.6 Granger causality test based on VAR
The variation attributed to any production process due to non-random is called Assignable Causes of variation. These factors cause heterogeneity in the process and as a result they affect it, leading to low quality product. Statistical In- Control and out-of control The process that operates with only Chance cause variability is said to be state in-control. The process that operates in the presence of assignable causes of variation is said to be state out-of control. The assignable causes of variability can be detected and eliminated that would reduce the overall variability.
General guidelines for screening for keratoconus: 1. Anterior and posterior elevation maps (Demirbas et al., 1998): In the anterior elevation map differences between the best fit sphere and the corneal contour of less than +12 μm are considered normal, between +12 μm and +15μm are suspicious, and more than +15 μm are typically indicative of keratoconus. Similar numbers about 5 μm higher apply to posterior elevation maps. 2. Anterior curvature map (Tomidokoro et al., 2000): The steepening of the cornea, irregular astigmatism, inferior steepening (I-S difference), location of steepest point and the thinnest point on the cornea may help in the diagnosis of keratoconus.
To make the system easy to use, the nodes in the net are often discrete. An expert can easily enter estimates of the probabilities for one situation leading to another, and by that come up with a “quite good” net. By using the ability to update the net, the performance increases if we have proper training data to use. Bayesian networks also have the ability to investigate hypothesis of the
The estimator should develop a range of estimates rather than a single estimate. The costing formula should be applied to all of these. Errors in initial estimates are likely to be significant. Estimates are most likely to be accurate when the product is well understood, the model has been calibrated for the organization using it, and language and hardware choices are predefined. Algorithmic cost modelling suffers from the fundamental difficulty that it relies on attributes of the finished product to make the cost estimate.
statistics (Goldstein, 2011; Gay, 2010; Snijders & Bosker, 2012). There are two types of statistical operations to which research data can be subjected for making of appropriate inferences about the population from the sample. They are parametric statistics and nonparametric statistics. It must be reiterated emphatically that of these two, the parametric statistics is incomparably more powerful, sensitive, appropriate, accurate and suitably desirable classically. A more powerful statistical test is that which can detect a small but real difference or relationship in the sample while simultaneously still being able to reject non-real difference or relationship that might be apparent.
On the off chance that there's an approach to scale back the quantity of additions, execution can move forward. Booth's algorithm is a procedure that reduces the amount of multiples of the multiplicand. For a given scope of numbers to be delineated, higher radix representation results in less digits. Since a parallel number of k bits will be taken as K/2 digit radix-4 number, a K/3 digits radix-8 number, et cetera, it can manage more than one piece of the multiplier in each cycle by using high radix multiplication. Fig.
Interpretation are also made to account for the results. The choice of the statistical techniques for the data analysis is largely determined by the research hypotheses to be tested. The tools are scored by the investigator by using
They suggested that past demonstrations of the word length effect, the finding that words with fewer syllables are recalled better than words with more syllables, included a confound: the short words had more orthographic neighbours than the long words. They wanted to test if the neighbourhood size is a more important factor than word length. Therefore, they tested two predictions that arise out of an account that attributes word length effects to neighbourhood size rather than to length per se: (1) The neighbourhood size effect, like the word length effect, should be eliminated if subjects engage in concurrent articulation. (2) Long items with a large neighbourhood size should be recalled better than short items with a small neighbourhood size. Word length effect: The word length effect refers to the finding that list of short words will be recalled better than the list of long words.