A frame structure (building) is considered in the present study and in which beam and column are modelled. Beam and column joint is the important factor in the RC frame. Beam and column joint is the portion where the column and beam intersect at each other. Large forces are develop in the joint at the time of the earthquake which affects the counter of the building. In the conventional design of practice check for the beam column joint is not critical, but for the seismic point of view it is necessary to check the joint.
To preserve a building in its initial state, as far as practicable so that it effectively serves its purpose, we need to carry out building maintenance frequently throughout the year. Building maintenance is actually and important measure as it maintain and improve landscaping on public and private property. It will also help to ensure that every infrastructure in the buildings are in good condition and the quality of the property is said to be preserved. It will also help to maintain the aesthetics value of a building by giving the building nice appearance. If building is maintained consistently, safety of occupants, visitors and general public is guaranteed.
In particular, the seismic rehabilitation of older concrete structures in high seismicity areas is a matter of growing concern, since structures vulnerable to damage must be identified and an acceptable level of safety must be determined. To make such assessment, simplified linear-elastic methods are not adequate. Thus, the structural engineering community has developed a new generation of design and seismic procedure that incorporates performance based design of structures and is moving away from simplified linear elastic methods and towards a more non linear technique. Recent interests in the development of performance based codes for the design or rehabilitation of buildings in seismic active areas show that an inelastic procedure commonly referred to as the pushover analysis is a viable method to assess damage vulnerability of buildings. Basically, a pushover analysis is a series of incremental static analysis carried out to develop a capacity curve for the building with increasing lateral load or displacement.
Abstract—Natural hazards such as earthquake occur often and damage the civil structure across the world. Collapse of building is due to the vibrations that occur during the earthquake. One such technique to establish effective structural control is base isolation system. It prevents the collapse of structure but not the contents present in it. To ensure the safety of building and its contents semi active control strategy has to be established.
When only some phases are affected, the resulting fault is said to be "asymmetrical fault" which is more complicated to determine. The analysis of the asymmetrical faults is carried out by a method generally known as symmetrical components. The main objective of the power system protection is the arrangement of protection scheme such that to detect and interrupt the faults occurring in power system easily. Some types of faults against which the protection devices are used are: • Transient
Design-out Maintenance The maintenance requirements are ‘designed-out’ to accomplish the necessary level of efficiency. Maintenance Management – BSE Building services personnel deliver the environmental scenario to ensure business processes perform optimally. The requirements pertaining to the maintenance of engineering services would differ from one client to another, but the main concern would be to ensure efficient usage of the premises. The engineering plant and equipment utilized in buildings deliver several benefits - environmental scenarios (heating, ventilation, air conditioning) to ensure dwellers are comfortable. The services once installed in a building would need proper maintenance to ensure they function optimally.
In plane construction , it is advisable to avoid the use of too brittle materials as they can cause failure when subjected to shock load. • Ductility : Ductility is the property of materials (metals) which allows them to be drawn out without breaking. This property is essential in manufacture
These may endanger the safety of a building. Extensive cracking of an RCC beam is an instance of structural cracking. 1.3.2 NON-STRUCTURAL CRACKS:- Non-structural cracks are mostly due to internally induced stress in building material and these generally do not directly result in structural weakening. Sometimes non-structural cracks may, because of penetration of moisture through cracks or weathering action, result in corrosion of reinforcement and thus may render the structure unsafe. Some other types of cracks due to internal stress.
Designers/advisers in particular need to consider the potential effect of their actions and designs on the health and safety of those carrying out the work and others affected by it. In short, everyone involved with a construction project such as from planners, designers and supervisors through to on-site workers have a big role to play in the management of health and safety during a construction project. This level of duty for each duty holder doesn’t go beyond what is reasonable for them to take. Figure 2: The Principal to Contractor Relationship Responsibilities of
CHAPTER 5 EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON BOND STRENGTH BETWEEN CONCRETE BLOCK AND MORTAR AND BEHAVIOUR OF MASONRY 5.1 NEED AND IMPORTANCE The bonding between concrete block and mortar influences the structural performance of masonry. The two materials fail to act together in the event of separation between them. The factors affecting concrete block-mortar bonding and influence of bond strength on compressive strength of masonry are useful in understanding the structural behaviour of masonry. The bond strength is measured through shear bond test. The influence of mortar characteristics like compressive strength and bond strength on compressive strength of masonry is studied.