IGM is the first type of grammatical metaphor, which is concerned with the construction of an alternative view of reality, by means of rearranging lexciogrammatical features. IGM is a powerful resource in the grammar of a language, by which the expression of ideational meanings such as processes, qualities and entities is stretched in important ways beyond their default encodings as clauses, adjectives and nouns or noun phrases. Halliday has offered a model displaying that certain forms (especially noun phrases) are more likely to be used as metaphorical forms than any other types of
Obviously, every speaker of a language has mastered and internalized a generative grammar that expresses his knowledge of his language. This is not say that he is aware of the rules of grammar or even that he can become aware of them or that this statement about his intuitive knowledge of the language are necessarily accurate”(Chomsky,A( 1965) Theory in Syntax). As it could be observed in the previous paragraphs is clear the main difference between those approaches. Moreover another important feature that distinguishes both is the study of language. In Structuralism is noticed that language is analysed syntactically like a structure, in order to link each element in a structural manner, therefore the study of the language is done in a specific manner.
What is Discourse Analysis? Discourse analysis is basically a common term for a range of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use or any significant semiotic event. Discourse analysis is usually viewed as language sentence or the clause. It is the look of linguistics that's concerned about how we build up meaning in larger communicative, instead of grammatical units. It studies meaning in text, paragraph and conversation, rather than in single sentence.
391-415. Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell This chapter about distinctive feature theory by Jeff Mielke describes the methodology of distinctive feature theory. He enumerates the hierarchy of features from laryngeal configuration to passive and active articulators as well as feature economy and specific feature classes. This article was quite useful to me in that it helped me understand the specific boundaries and intentions of distinctive feature theory. The fact that distinctive feature theory relies on the organization of phonemes into specific classes and rule formalizations allowed me to further look into whether or not allophones should be allowed in distinctive feature theory.
There is two parts in this book, Part One, ‘Theoretical Preliminaries’ gives a general idea of what stylistics involves. It presents a set of techniques applicable to the description of any piece of language, and discusses various theoretical concepts necessary for classifying the varieties of language into types. English is the focus of the discussion, but it is felt that the techniques could be generalized to other languages. In chapter two ‘Linguistic Description’, they explain two models of linguistic description used in this book: models of non-segmental phonology and grammar. They use symbolization of non-segmental features to allow people to deduce the way in which the spoken discourse was spoken.
Everyone of these disciplines has many vocabulary and expressions that can be used. For that reason, linguists brought this term ESP and it started to developed through the passage of time accidentally. It is an abbreviation for ( English for Specific Purposes). It is related to the need of the learners. What, where, when and how they need ESP for?.
Mart proposed that ‘Comprehensibility’ and ‘Acceptability’ are the main purposes of teaching grammar. In this case, comprehensibility is emphasizing on the fluency of the language, which is the ability to deliver messages to another party. On the other hand, acceptability refers to the accuracy of using English Language is highlighting the societal view towards English users with different levels of proficiency. From this, it could be seen that Mart did not only put his focus of the academic usage of grammar but also discuss the importance of grammar based on societal aspects. Furthermore, Mark also quoted a criticism on the usage of traditional method, which is Present, Practice and Produce (PPP), failed to educate learners on the application of grammar in communication.
The researcher operationally defines instructional strategy as the general components of instructional materials, practices and the procedures will be used with those materials to elicit particular learning outcomes. Grammar: Grammar is defined as the description of certain organizing aspects of particular language such as phonological (sounds), morphological (word composition) and syntactic (sentence composition) points (Hill,1993). Subsequently ,grammar can be described as the business of taking a language into pieces to see how it works (Crystal,1996). In this respect, Koutsoudas ( 1966) assumes that grammar is the description of the way a language works. In the present study, the researcher defines grammar as the study of a fixed set of words and forms to grasp the meaning these forms convey.
It gives us a concrete explanation of how a language works. In other words, we cannot communicate properly without it. Most of our workbooks and manuals present the correct usage of grammar through rules and exercises. However, every learner has some shortcomings and mine is and has always been ‘modal verbs’. I have chosen to discuss this grammar pattern in this paper.
Grammar is a demonstration of a language at a time. The grammar of a language is the way that language is structured, how the words are arranged with each other to form a meaningful sentence. Usually there is no strict rule to use grammar in a sentence. It is just the mind that differentiates between the wrong and right grammar and that what all matters. The early rules of grammar were different then we have today.