The study done by Ross and Gray (2006) revealed that collective teacher efficacy contributed to commitment to school mission, commitment to community partnership, and especially to commitment to professional community. Furthermore, the study found that collective teacher efficacy strongly predicted commitment to community partnerships (Ross & Gray, 2006). However, this study further suggests that the teacher’s belief on their group competency can also influence their teaching effectiveness. Collective Teacher Efficacy and Teaching Effectiveness Goddard, Hoy, and Hoy (2000) suggest that one way for school administrators to improve student achievement is by working to raise the collective efficacy beliefs of their faculties. Past teaching experiences has an impact on the development of a teacher’s sense of efficacy.
It is related to positive teaching behaviours and student outcomes. Teacher efficacy can be defined in numerous ways, such as “the extent to which teachers believe they can affect students learning” (Dembo & Gibson, 1994 : 4); “teachers belief in their ability to have a positive effect on student learning” (Ashton, 1985 : 142); and “a teacher’s belief that he or she can reach even the most difficult students and help them learn” (Woolfolk, 1998 : 393). Another definition of teacher efficacy beliefs as defined by Tschannen-Moran, Woolfolk, & Hoy (1998 : 233) is “the teacher’s belief in his or her capability to organize and execute courses of action required to successfully accomplish a specific teaching task in a particular context”. Gorrell and Capron (1990) highlighted that “it is important to fill a sense of efficacy in those who are being prepared (teacher trainee) to ensure that they have confidence to attempt to apply their knowledge when the appropriate time comes”. Teacher efficacy is very important and it was corroborated by Morin and Welsh (1991) who stated that “an educator with high teaching efficacy will engage in activities that promote the development of competencies.
Teaching learning process make more efficient and effective situation that could supply more highly competitive learners inside the classroom and for the work environment. In a further study conducted by Indhumathi (2011), investigating the job satisfaction and performance of 444 teachers at the secondary level, it was discovered that there was a significant relationship between job satisfaction and performance and the teachers in different categories of schools differed significantly in both job satisfaction and teaching performance. Does job satisfaction really leads to improve
School and teachers can influence the extent and quality of learning for all students. Teacher’s beliefs, practices and attitudes are important for understanding and improving educational processes. They are closely linked to teachers’ strategies for coping with challenges in their daily professional life. Educators have control over numerous factors that influence motivation, achievement and behaviour of students. They are turning around their approach into a focus on creating positive school climate and responsive classroom as part of holistic quality education based on child rights where there is effective teaching and classroom management, thus enhancing students’ learning experiences.
Effectiveness is very important trait in all subject areas. Researches define effectiveness in terms of student achievement. Cruickshank and Haefele (2001) noted that good teachers at various times have been called ideal, analytical, dutiful, competent, effective, satisfying, responsive and respected. Effective teachers do have an extraordinary and lasting impact on the lives of the students. As a student and prospective teacher I believe that a good and effective social studies teacher possesses essential qualities such as; command over subject area, strong control over classroom, a positive attitude and being a good evaluator.
Academic self-efficacy is influenced by cognitive interpretations of success and failure in tasks, but also influences effort, persistence and the cognitive resources that are used in seeking to interact with the academic context. Motivation and efficacy are enhanced when learning progress and comprehension are perceived. Strategies may influence self-efficacy and motivation, and students who believe that a new strategy can improve their performance may keep their initial motivation even if they perceive little progress if the new strategy gives a sense of control over achievement outcomes. In paper I, students who participated in relationships with faculty and student activities increased their perceptions of informal opportunities to influence their study conditions and sense of control, which enhanced their self-efficacy. High self-efficacy perceptions are also believed to make individuals engage in tasks that develop their skills and capabilities, while low-efficacy perceptions make students choose tasks that will not need development of new skills (Schunk, 1991).
Teacher to teacher relationship is also important. The more that a teacher is comfortable with his co-workers, his teaching career will be made easier as he collaborates with them most especially during tough times (Meador, 2012). To do this, the educator must avoid gossip or hearsay. Aside from that, he must also avoid being critical with regard his co-workers. This way, the educator will surely be comfortable as he works within the school premises on a daily basis.
At school, teachers have to encourage students to take up extracurricular activities, as well as to excel in their studies. Hence, verbal ability, content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, certification status, ability to use a range of teaching strategies skillfully, and enthusiasm for the subject characterize more successful teachers. The effectiveness of teachers can be identified by different factors. Firstly, it is good to look at their performance at work, including what they do in classrooms and how much progress their students make on achievement tests. For instance, teachers can adopt various teaching
Review of Related Literatures Student-Teacher Relationships With this basic understanding of the apparent necessity and importance of relationships in mind, the following section will focus more specifically on the importance and impact of student-teacher relationships. A request for what constitutes effective teaching will be after undoubtedly a long and varied list of responses. The list may include, but not be limited to a teacher’s knowledge of subject, pedagogical competence, instructional effectiveness, and/or classroom management skills. Banner and Cannon (1997) describe the difficulty in defining exactly what it means to be an effective teacher, “We think we know great teaching when we encounter it, yet we find it impossible to say precisely what has gone into making it great.” As stated by McEwan (2002), “An ample amount of research exists showing that content and caring are not exclusive commodities; effective teachers emphasize both...” Teacher connections One of the attributes that will undoubtedly make most lists is a teacher’s ability to connect with students. It may be referred to as an ability to cultivate relationships or be more formally labeled as “nurturing pedagogy.” It may be defined as a mix of high expectations and caring support; or as Pianta (1999) defines the student-teacher relationship, “Emotions-based experiences that emerge out of teachers’ on-going interactions with their students.” Strahan and Layell (2006) noted the importance of